Carl Schlichting

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Office: TLS 366
Voice: (860) 486-4056
Fax: (860) 486-6364

Old Home page:

Mailing address:
75 N. Eagleville Road, U-3043
Storrs, CT 06269


Schlichting, C. D. and M. Pigliucci. 1998. Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sunderland, MA, Sinauer Associates.

Papers & Book Chapters

    Plasticity & Phenotypic evolution

Jones, C. S., F. T. Bakker, C. D. Schlichting and A. B. Nicotra. 2009. Leaf shape evolution in the South African genus Pelargonium L’ Hér. (Geraniaceae). Evolution 63: 479-497.

Nicotra, A. B., M. J. Cosgrove, A. Cowling, C. D. Schlichting and C. S. Jones. 2008. Leaf shape linked to photosynthetic rates and temperature optima in South African Pelargonium species. Oecologia 154: 625-635.

Schlichting, C. D. 2008. Hidden reaction norms, cryptic variation and evolvability. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1133: 187-203.

Nicotra, A. B., J. P. Hermes, C. S. Jones and C. D. Schlichting. 2007. Geographic variation and plasticity to water and nutrients in Pelargonium australe. New Phytologist 176: 136–149.

Pigliucci, M., C. J. Murren and C. D. Schlichting. 2006. Phenotypic plasticity and evolution by genetic assimilation. Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 2362-2367.

Núñez-Farfán, J. and C. D. Schlichting. 2005. Natural selection in Potentilla glandulosa revisited. Evolutionary Ecology Research 7: 105-119.

Engelmann, K. E. and C. D. Schlichting. 2005. Coarse- versus fine-grained water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 92: 101-106.

Schlichting, C. D. 2004. The role of phenotypic plasticity in diversification. Phenotypic Plasticity: Functional and Conceptual Approaches. T. J. DeWitt and S. M. Scheiner. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 191-200.

Schlichting, C. D. and C. J. Murren. 2004. Evolvability and the raw materials for adaptation. Molecular Genetics and Ecology of Plant Adaptation. Q. C. B. Cronk, J. Whitton, R. H. Ree and I. E. P. Taylor. Ottawa, Ontario, NRC Research Press: 18-29.

Schlichting, C. D. 2003. The origins of differentiation via phenotypic plasticity. Evolution & Development 5: 98-105.

Morales, E. A., F. R. Trainor and C. D. Schlichting. 2002. Evolutionary and ecological implications of plastic responses of algae. Constancea 83:

Schlichting, C. D. and H. Smith. 2002. Phenotypic plasticity: linking molecular mechanisms with evolutionary outcomes. Evolutionary Ecology 16: 189-211.

Murren, C. J., R. Julliard, C. D. Schlichting and J. Clobert. 2001. Dispersal, individual phenotype, and phenotypic plasticity. Dispersal. J. Clobert, J. D. Nichols, E. Danchin and A. A. Dhondt. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press: 261-272.

Núñez-Farfán, J. and C. D. Schlichting. 2001. Evolution in changing environments: The 'synthetic' work of Clausen, Keck and Hiesey. Quarterly Review of Biology 76: 433-457.

Pigliucci, M., G. A. Tyler III and C. D. Schlichting. 1999. Mutational effects on constraints on character evolution and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Genetics 77: 95-103.

Pigliucci, M. and C. D. Schlichting. 1998. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. V. Flowering time controls phenotypic architecture in response to nutrient stress. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11: 285-301.

Callahan, H. S., M. Pigliucci and C. D. Schlichting. 1997. Developmental phenotypic plasticity: where ecology and evolution meet molecular biology. BioEssays 19: 519-525.

Nicotra, A. B., R. L. Chazdon and C. D. Schlichting. 1997. Patterns of genotypic variation and phenotypic plasticity of light response in two tropical Piper species. American Journal of Botany 84: 1542-1552.

Pigliucci, M., P. J. diIorio and C. D. Schlichting. 1997. Phenotypic plasticity of growth trajectories in two species of Lobelia in response to nutrient availability. Journal of Ecology 85: 265-276.

Pigliucci, M. and C. D. Schlichting. 1997. On the limits of quantitative genetics for the study of phenotypic evolution. Acta Biotheoretica 45: 143-160.

Pigliucci, M. and C. D. Schlichting. 1996. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. IV. Relationships between plasticity and fitness. Heredity 76: 427-436.

Pigliucci, M., C. D. Schlichting, C. S. Jones and K. Schwenk. 1996. Developmental reaction norms: the interactions among allometry, ontogeny and plasticity. Plant Species Biology 11: 69-85.

Pigliucci, M. and C. D. Schlichting. 1995. Ontogenetic reaction norms in Lobelia siphilitica (Lobeliaceae): response to shading. Ecology 76: 2134-2144.

Pigliucci, M. and C. D. Schlichting. 1995. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). III. Geographic variation and response to nutrients in 26 populations. American Journal of Botany 82: 1117-1125.

Pigliucci, M., C. D. Schlichting and J. Whitton. 1995. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. II. Response to stress and unordered environmental variation. Functional Ecology 9: 537-547.

Pigliucci, M., J. Whitton and C. D. Schlichting. 1995. Reaction norms of Arabidopsis. I. Plasticity of characters and correlations across water, nutrient and light gradients. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 8: 421-438.

Schlichting, C. D. and M. Pigliucci. 1995. Gene regulation, quantitative genetics, and the evolution of reaction norms. Evolutionary Ecology 9: 154-168.

Schlichting, C. D. and M. Pigliucci. 1995. Lost in phenotypic space: environment dependent morphology in Phlox drummondii (Polemoniaceae). International Journal of Plant Science 156: 542-546.

Via, S., R. Gomulkiewicz, G. de Jong, S. M. Scheiner, C. D. Schlichting and P. H. van Tienderen. 1995. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: consensus and controversy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 212-216.

Schlichting, C. D. and M. Pigliucci. 1993. Control of phenotypic plasticity via regulatory genes. American Naturalist 142: 366-370.

Schlichting, C. D. and D. A. Levin. 1990. Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. III. Variation among natural populations of P. drummondii. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 3: 411-428.

Schlichting, C. D. 1989. Phenotypic integration and environmental change. BioScience 39: 460-464.

Schlichting, C. D. 1989. Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. II. Plasticity of character correlations. Oecologia 78: 496-501.

Schlichting, C. D. and D. A. Levin. 1988. Phenotypic plasticity in Phlox. I. Wild and cultivated populations of P. drummondii. American Journal of Botany 75: 161-169.

Schlichting, C. D. 1986. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17: 667-693.

Schlichting, C. D. and D. A. Levin. 1986. Effects of inbreeding on phenotypic plasticity in cultivated Phlox. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 72: 114-119.

Schlichting, C. D. and D. A. Levin. 1986. Phenotypic plasticity: an evolving plant character. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 29: 37-47.

Schlichting, C. D. and D. A. Levin. 1984. Phenotypic plasticity of annual Phlox: tests of some hypotheses. American Journal of Botany 71: 252-260.

   Plant reproductive biology

Schlichting, C. D. and V. A. Delesalle. 1997. Stressing the differences between male and female functions in hermaphroditic plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12: 51-52.

Stephenson, A. G., M. Quesada, C. D. Schlichting and J. A. Winsor. 1995. Consequences of variation in pollen load size. Experimental and molecular approaches to plant biosystematics. P. C. Hoch and A. G. Stephenson: 233-244.

Schlichting, C. D. and B. Devlin. 1992. Pollen and ovule sources affect seed production of Lobelia cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). American Journal of Botany 79: 891-898.

Quesada, M., C. D. Schlichting, J. A. Winsor and A. G. Stephenson. 1991. Effects of genotype on pollen performance in Cucurbita pepo. Sexual Plant Reproduction 4: 208-214.

Schlichting, C. D., A. G. Stephenson, L. E. Small and J. A. Winsor. 1990. Pollen loads and progeny vigor in Cucurbita pepo: the next generation. Evolution 44: 1358-1372.

Schlichting, C. D. and B. Devlin. 1989. Male and female reproductive success in the hermaphroditic plant Phlox drummondii. American Naturalist 133: 212-227.

Stephenson, A. G., J. A. Winsor and C. D. Schlichting. 1988. Evidence for non-random fertilization in the common zucchini, Cucurbita pepo. Sexual Reproduction in Higher Plants. M. Cresti, R. Gori and E. Pacini. Berlin, Springer-Verlag: 333-338.

Stephenson, A. G., J. A. Winsor, C. D. Schlichting and L. E. Davis. 1988. Pollen competition, nonrandom fertilization, and progeny fitness: a reply to Charlesworth. American Naturalist 132: 303-308.

Schlichting, C. D., A. G. Stephenson, J. A. Winsor and L. E. Davis. 1987. Pollen competition and offspring variability. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 1: 35-39.

Bixby, P. J., L. E. Davis, C. D. Schlichting and A. G. Stephenson. 1986. Correlations between rapid germination and seedling vigor in the common zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). Proceedings Pennsylvania Academy of Science 60: 33-35.

Schlichting, C. D. 1986. Environmental stress reduces pollen quality in Phlox: compounding the fitness deficit. Biotechnology and Ecology of Pollen. D. L. Mulcahy, G.B, Ottaviano, E. (eds)


Povoa, M. M., J. E. Conn, C. D. Schlichting, J. C. O. F. Amaral, M. N. O. Segura, A. N. M. Da Silva, C. C. B. Dos Santos, R. N. L. Lacerda, R. T. L. De Souza, D. Galiza, E. P. Santa Rosa and R. A. Wirtz. 2003. Malaria vectors, epidemiology, and the re-emergence of Anopheles darlingi in Belem, Para, Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 379-386.

Povoa, M. M., R. T. L. De Souza, R. N. L. Lacerda, E. S. Rosa, D. Galiza, J. R. De Souza, R. A. Wirtz, C. D. Schlichting and J. E. Conn. 2006. The importance of Anopheles albitarsis E and An. darlingi in human malaria transmission in Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil. Memorias Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101: 163-168.

Conn, J. E., R. C. Wilkerson, M. N. O. Segura, R. T. L. Souza, C. D. Schlichting, R. A. Wirtz and M. M. Póvoa. 2002. Emergence of a new Neotropical malaria vector facilitated by human migration and changes in land use. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 66: 18-22.


Schlichting, C. D. 2004. The diversity of complexity. Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. M. Pigliucci and K. A. Preston, Oxford University Press: 3-17.

Schlichting, C. D. 2003. Environment. Keywords and Concepts in Evolutionary Developmental Biology. B. K. Hall and W. M. Olson. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press: 108-113.

Schlichting, C. D. 2002. Phenotypic Plasticity. Encyclopedia of Evolution. M. Pagel. New York, Oxford University Press: 883-886.

Schlichting, C. D. 2002. Phenotypic plasticity in plants: introduction to special issue. Plant Species Biology 17: 85-88.</p>

 Book reviews

Schlichting, C. D. 2009. An Uneven Guide to Eco-Devo. BioScience: 1000-1003. Review of Ecological Developmental Biology: Integrating Epigenetics, Medicine, and Evolution by Scott Gilbert and David Epel, Sinauer Associates, 2009.

Schlichting, C. D. 2006. Review of The Plausibility of Life: Resolving Darwin's Dilemma. Quarterly Review of Biology 81: 169-170. Book by Marc W. Kirschner and John C. Gerhart, Yale University Press, 2005.

Schlichting, C. D. 2003. Environment rules. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 18: 496-497. Review of Developmental Plasticity and Evolution by MaryJane West-Eberhard, Oxford, 2003.