Syst. Biol. 53(3) 2004

Freitas and Brown
Abstract.—A generic-level phylogeny for the butterfly family Nymphalidae was produced by cladistic analysis of 234 characters from all life stages.  The 95 species in the matrix (selected from the 213 studied) represent all important recognized lineages within this family.  The analysis showed the taxa grouping into six main lineages.  The basal branch is the Libytheinae, with the Danainae and Ithomiinae on the next branch.  The remaining lineages are grouped into two main branches: the Heliconiinae-Nymphalinae, primarily flower-visitors (but including the fruit-attracted Coeini); and the Limenitidinae (sensu strictu), Biblidinae, and the satyroid lineage (Apaturinae, Charaxinae, Biinae, Calinaginae, Morphinae, Brassolinae, and Satyrinae), primarily fruit-attracted.  Data partitions showed that the two data sets (immatures and adults) are very different, and a partitioned Bremer support analysis showed that the adult characters are the main source of conflict in the nodes of the combined analysis tree.  This phylogeny includes the widest taxon coverage of any morphological study on Nymphalid butterflies to date, and supports the monophyly and relationships of most presently recognized subgroups, providing strong evidence for the presently accepted phylogenetic scheme.

Stefanovic and Olmstead
Abstract.—Previous findings on structural rearrangements in the chloroplast genome of Cuscuta (dodder), the only parasitic genus in the morning-glory family, Convolvulaceae, were attributed to its parasitic life style, but without proper comparison to related nonparasitic members of the family. Before molecular evolutionary questions regarding genome evolution can be answered, the phylogenetic problems within the family need to be resolved. However, the phylogenetic position of parasitic angiosperms and their precise relationship to nonparasitic relatives are difficult to infer. Problems are encountered with both morphological and molecular evidence. Molecular data have been used in numerous studies to elucidate relationships of parasitic taxa, despite accelerated rates of sequence evolution. To address the question of the position of the genus Cuscuta within Convolvulaceae, we generated a new molecular data set consisting of mitochondrial (atpA) and nuclear (RPB2)genes, and analyzed these data together with an existing chloroplast data matrix (rbcL, atpB, trnL-F, and psbE-J), to which anadditional chloroplast gene (rpl2) was added. This data set was analyzed with an array of phylogenetic methods, including Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony. Further exploration of data was done by using methods of phylogeny hypothesis testing. At least two nonparasitic lineages are shown to diverge within the Convolvulaceae before Cuscuta. However, the exact sister group of Cuscuta could not be ascertained, even though many alternatives were rejected with confidence. Caution is therefore warranted when interpreting the causes of molecular evolution in Cuscuta. Detailed comparisons with nonparasitic Convolvulaceae are necessary before firm conclusions can be reached regarding the effects of the parasitic mode of life on patterns of molecular evolution in Cuscuta.

Lin et al.
Abstract.—The treehopper subfamily Membracinae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae) comprises the majority of genera and species diversity in the New World tropics. These treehoppers exhibit a wide range of social behaviors, making them an excellent group for studying patterns of social evolution in insects. However, to date the tribal and generic relationships have remained unclear. We reconstructed the phylogeny of the Membracinae using a combined mitochondrial (COI, COII, tRNA-Leu, and 12S) and nuclear (Wg) gene data set. A total of 2608 aligned nucleotide sites were obtained for 112 species, representing 25 of 38 currently recognized genera and all four tribes. A strict consensus of five equally parsimonious trees recovered the subfamily and three of its four tribes. The majority rule consensus tree derived from the Bayesian analyses based on the GTR +I +G and mixed-models recovered many clades shared with the parsimony trees and is identical to the single best tree inferred from maximum likelihood analysis, aside from the rearrangement of one node. A comparison of mitochondrial and nuclear genes indicated that Wg provided higher consistency index (CI), data decisiveness (DD), partitioned Bremer support (PBS) than any of the mitochondrial genes analyzed. The combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA provide strong support for the monophyly of the subfamily and three of its four tribes (Aconophorini, Hoplophorionini, and Hypsoprorini). Membracini is paraphyletic with respect to Hoplophorionini and contains two lineages, the Membracini sensu strictu and the newly resurrected tribe Bolbonotini. Our analyses show that there is a strong phylogenetic component to the evolution of maternal care. Given the widespread occurrence of maternal care within the subfamily, this trait is estimated to have < or = 3 origins, two reversals, and one loss. Our results suggest that the evolution of maternal care in insects may not be as evolutionarily labile as previously thought.

Renner and Zhang
Abstract.Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) and Lemna (duckweeds) are the only free-floating aquatic Araceae. The geographic origin and phylogenetic placement of these unrelated aroids present long-standing problems because of their highly modified reproductive structures and wide geographical distributions. We sampled chloroplast (trnL-trnF and rpl20-rps12 spacers, trnL intron) and mitochondrial sequences (nad1 b/c intron) for all genera implicated as close relatives of Pistia by morphological, restriction site, and sequencing data, and present a hypothesis about its geographic origin based on the consensus of trees obtained from the combined data, using Bayesian, maximum likelihood, parsimony, and distance analyses. Of the 14 genera closest to Pistia, only Alocasia, Arisaema, and Typhonium are species-rich, and the latter two were studied previously, facilitating the choice of representatives that span the roots of these genera. Results indicate that Pistia and the Seychelles endemic Protarum sechellarum are the basalmost branches in a grade comprising the tribes Colocasieae (Ariopsis, Steudnera, Remusatia, Alocasia, Colocasia), Arisaemateae (Arisaema, Pinellia), and Areae (Arum, Biarum, Dracunculus, Eminium, Helicodiceros, Theriophonum, Typhonium). Unexpectedly, all Areae genera are embedded in Typhonium, which throws new light on the geographic history of Areae. A Bayesian analysis of divergence times that explores the effects of multiple fossil and geological calibration points indicates that the Pistia lineage is 90 to 76 million years (my) old. The oldest fossils of the Pistia clade, though not Pistia itself, are 45-my-old leaves from Germany; the closest outgroup, Peltandreae (comprising a few species in Florida, the Mediterranean, and Madagascar), is known from 60-my-old leaves from Europe, Kazakhstan, North Dakota, and Tennessee. Based on the geographic ranges of close relatives, Pistia likely originated in the Tethys region, with Protarum then surviving on the Seychelles, which became isolated from Madagascar and India in the Late Cretaceous (85 my ago). Pistia and Protarum provide striking examples of ancient lineages that appear to have survived in unique or isolated habitats.

Matthee et al.
Abstract.—The hares and rabbits belonging to the family Leporidae have a nearly worldwide distribution and approximately 72% of the genera have geographically restricted distributions.  Despite several attempts using morphological, cytogenetic and mitochondrial DNA evidence, a robust phylogeny for the Leporidae remains elusive.  To provide phylogenetic resolution within this group a molecular supermatrix was constructed for 27 taxa representing all 11 leporid genera.  Five nuclear (SPTBN1, PRKC1, THY, TG, and MGF) and two mitochondrial (cytochrome b and 12S rRNA) gene fragments were analyzed singly and in combination using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference.  The analysis of each gene fragment separately as well as the combined mtDNA data almost invariably failed to provide strong statistical support for intergeneric relationships.  In contrast, the combined nuclear DNA topology based on 3601 characters greatly increased phylogenetic resolution among leporid genera, as was evidenced by the number of topologies in the 95% confidence interval and the number of significantly supported nodes.  The final molecular supermatrix contained 5483 genetic characters and analysis thereof consistently recovered the same topology across a range of six arbitrarily chosen model specifications.  Twelve unique insertion–deletions were scored and all could be mapped to the tree to provide additional support without introducing any homoplasy.  Dispersal-vicariance analyses suggest that the most parsimonious solution explaining the current geographic distribution of the group involves an Asian or North-American origin for the Leporids followed by at least nine dispersals and five vicariance events.  Of these dispersals, at least three intercontinental exchanges occurred between North America and Asia via the Bering Strait and an additional three independent dispersals into Africa could be identified.  A relaxed Bayesian molecular clock applied to the seven loci used in this study indicated that most of the intercontinental exchanges occurred between 14 and 9 million years ago and this period is broadly coincidental with the onset of major Antarctic expansions causing land bridges to be exposed.

Castoe et al.
Abstract.—Phylogenetic studies incorporating multiple loci, and multiple genomes, are becoming increasingly common. Coincident with this trend in genetic sampling, model-based likelihood techniques including Bayesian phylogenetic methods continue to gain popularity. Few studies, however, have examined model fit and sensitivity to such potentially heterogeneous data partitions within combined data analyses using empirical data. Here we investigate the relative model fit and sensitivity of Bayesian phylogenetic methods when alternative site-specific partitions of among-site rate variation (with and without autocorrelated rates) are considered. Our primary goal in choosing a best-fit model was to employ the simplest model that was a good fit to the data while optimizing topology and/or Bayesian posterior probabilities. Thus, we were not interested in complex models that did not practically affect our interpretation of the topology under study. We applied these alternative models to a four-gene data set including one protein-coding nuclear gene (c-mos), one protein-coding mitochondrial gene (ND4), and two mitochondrial rRNA genes (12S and 16S) for the diverse yet poorly known lizard family Gymnophthalmidae. Our results suggest that the best-fit model partitioned among-site rate variation separately among the c-mos, ND4, and 12S +16S gene regions. We found this model yielded identical topologies to those from analyses based on the GTR +I +G model, but significantly changed posterior probability estimates of clade support. This partitioned model also produced more precise (less variable) estimates of posterior probabilities across generations of long Bayesian runs, compared to runs employing a GTR +I +G model estimated for the combined data. We use this three-way gamma partitioning in Bayesian analyses to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the relationships of genera within the lizard family Gymnophthalmidae. We then reevaluate the higher-level taxonomic arrangement of the Gymnophthalmidae. Based on our findings, we discuss the utility of nontraditional parameters for modeling among-site rate variation and the implications and future directions for complex model building and testing.

Dobigny et al.
Abstract.—Chromosomal data have been underutilised in phylogenetic investigations despitethe obvious potential that cytogenetic studies have to reveal both structural and functional homologies among taxa. In large part this is associated with difficulties in scoring conventional and molecular cytogenetic information for phylogenetic analysis. The manner in which chromosomal data have been used by most authors in the past was often conceptionally flawed in terms of the methods and principles underpinning modern cladistics. We present herein a review of the different methods employed, examine their relative strengths, and then outline a simple approach that considers the chromosomal change as the character, and its presence or absence the character state. We test this using one simulated and several empirical data sets. Features that are unique to cytogenetic investigations, including B-chromosomes, heterochromatic additions / deletions, and the location and number of nucleolar organiser regions (NORs), as well as the weighting of chromosomal characters, are critically discussed with regard to their suitability for phylogenetic reconstruction. We conclude that each of these classes of data have inherent problems that limit their usefulness in phylogenetic analyses and in most of these instances, inclusion should be subject to rigorous appraisal that addresses the criterion of unequivocal homology.

Foster
Abstract.—Compositional heterogeneity among lineages can compromise phylogenetic analyses, because models in common use assume compositionally homogeneous data. Models that can accommodate compositional heterogeneity with few extra parameters are described here, and used in two examples where the true tree is known with confidence. It is shown using likelihood ratio tests that adequate modeling of compositional heterogeneity can be achieved with few composition parameters, that the data may not need to be modelled with separate composition parameters for each branch in the tree. Tree searching and placement of composition vectors on the tree are done in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Assessment of fit of the model to the data is made in both maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian frameworks. In an ML framework, overall model fit is assessed using the Goldman-Cox test,and the fit of the composition implied by a (possibly heterogeneous) model to the composition of the data is assessed using a novel tree- and model-based composition fit test.In a Bayesian framework, overall model fit and composition fit are assessed using posterior predictive simulation. It is shown that when composition is not accommodated, then the model does not fit, and incorrect trees are found; but when composition is accommodated, the model then fits, and the known correct phylogenies are obtained.

Bremer et al.
Abstract.—We present a phylogenetic dating of asterids, based on a 111-taxon tree representing all major groups and orders and 83 of the 102 families of asterids, with an underlying data set comprising six chloroplast DNA markers totaling 9914 positions. Phylogenetic dating was done with semiparametric rate smoothing by penalized likelihood. Confidence intervals were calculated by bootstrapping. Six reference fossils were used for calibration. To explore the effects of various sources of error, we repeated the analyses with alternative dating methods (nonparametric rate smoothing and the Langley-Fitch clock-based method), alternative tree topologies, reduced taxon sampling (22 of the 111 taxa deleted), partitioning the data into three genes and three noncoding regions, and calibrating with single reference fossils. The analyses with alternative topologies, reduced taxon sampling, and coding versus noncoding sequences all yielded small or in some cases no deviations. The choice of method influenced the age estimates of a few nodes considerably. Calibration with reference fossils is a critical issue, and use of single reference fossils yielded different results depending on the fossil. The bootstrap confidence intervals were generally small. Our results show that asterids and their major subgroups euasterids, campanulids, and lamiids diversified during the Early Cretaceous. Cornales, Ericales, and Aquifoliales also have crown node ages from the Early Cretaceous. Dipsacales and Solanales are from the Mid-Cretaceous, the other orders of core campanulids and core lamiids from the Late Cretaceous. The considerable diversity exhibited by asterids almost from their first appearance in the fossil record also supports an origin and first phase of diversification in the Early Cretaceous.

Kjer
Abstract.—The nuclear small subunit rRNA (18S) has played a dominant role in the estimation of relationships among insect orders from molecular data. In previous studies, 18S sequences have been aligned by unadjusted automated approaches (computer alignments that are not manually readjusted), most recently with direct optimization (simultaneous alignment and tree building using a program called “POY”). Parsimony has been the principal optimality criterion. Given the problems associated with the alignment of rRNA, and the recent availability of the doublet model for the analysis of covarying sites using Bayesian MCMC analysis, a different approach is called for in the analysis of these data. In this paper, nucleotide sequence data from the 18S small subunit rRNA gene of insects are aligned manually with reference to secondary structure, and analyzed under Bayesian phylogenetic methods with both GTR +I +G and doublet models in MrBayes. A credible phylogeny of Insecta is recovered that is independent of the morphological data and (unlike many other analyses of 18S in insects) not contradictory to traditional ideas of insect ordinal relationships based on morphology. Hexapoda, including Collembola, are monophyletic. Paraneoptera are the sister taxon to a monophyletic Holometabola but weakly supported. Ephemeroptera are supported as the sister taxon of Neoptera, and this result is interpreted with respect to the evolution of direct sperm transfer and the evolution of flight. Many other relationships are well-supported but several taxa remain problematic, e.g., there is virtually no support for relationships among orthopteroid orders. A website is made available that provides aligned 18S data in formats that include structural symbols and Nexus formats.