Selected New Zealand cicada species

Summary of New Zealand Cicadas and their Localities: Click on names to see photos, maps, and/or other information. Information from Fleming 1971, 1973, 1975, 1984; Dugdale and Fleming 1978; personal correspondence of Fleming and Dugdale, and our own field notes.

All species endemic to New Zealand except where noted

Click on species names for photographs and songs

Note that colors (especially green) may not be accurate, due to the photographic process used and the state of preservation of the museum specimens.

Please read this note on the validity of unpublished species names.

AMPHIPSALTA (3 species)

Amphipsalta cingulata (Fabricius 1775)

Type: BMNH

N.I. Concentrated in northern half of N.I. and southern tip (Wellington) except Hutt Valley floor. Trees, shrubs, rocks, lampposts, buildings. Emerges earlier in season than A. zelandica.

Amphipsalta strepitans (Kirkaldy 1909)

Type: NZAC

N.I. Localized along south coast at Red Rocks, Pinacles, and Pincaro. Between Wainuiomata and Orongorongo River, Wellington District. On cliff faces, scree, flax flowering stalks, and woody shrubs.

S.I. Eastern areas from D'Urville Island south to Central Otago. Common in N.E. Marlborough. Also found in parts of Motueka Valley, East Nelson and Canterbury. Cliff faces, rocks in riverbeds, trees.

Amphipsalta zelandica (Boisduval 1835)

Type: Tasman Bay. Specimen Lost

N.I. Widespread over the entire island. Also on Three Kings Is.
S.I. Coastal areas except from Dunedin north to about Timaru and Stewart Island.
Trees, shrubs, lampposts, buildings. Emerges later in the season than A. cingulata. In Wellington, most abundant in February.

KIKIHIA(ca. 27 species)

Kikihia angusta (Walker 1850)

Type: Sealy Range. Te Papa

S.I. Tussock foothills east of main divide from Marlborough, Island Pass, Lake Sedgemere southward from foot of Turk ridge south to Stuart Island. Common in tussock. (= K. pallida Hudson)

Kikihia astragali
(undescribed, K. sp. A; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. Westhaven Inlet (Knuckle Hill) old forestry road (S. of Farewell Spit), Wakamarama R. Called the "Knuckle Hill giant" by Fleming and Dugdale. (= K. wakamarama undescribed). (Perhaps it is an isolated population of nelsonensis, distinct in song and coloration)

Kikihia balena
(undescribed, K. sp. B; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. Mason and Conway headwaters near the Whales Back (inland Waiau-Kaikoura road). In shrubs.

Kikihia cauta (Myers 1921)

Type: BMNH

N.I. Throughout, often high in trees but also shrubs e.g. on Hawkins Hill, Wellington, and Rimutaka summit.

Kikihia convicta (Distant 1892)

Norfolk Island, along road below summit of Mt. Pitt, Mt. Bates, and down the track towards Red Road for .5 kilometers east of M. Bates. Buncombe Road between 100-200m contours. Selwin Pines trail head. Norfolk Island Botanical Garden. November-January, maybe longer.

Kikihia cutora cumberi Fleming 1973

Holotype: Mangatawai Stream. Te Papa

N.I. North Island, south from Coromandel and lower Waikato Valley to the southern tip of the North Island. Seldom observed before Christmas. Late January to late May with a maximum in March-April.

Kikihia cutora cutora (Walker 1850)

Type: British Museum.

N.N.I. northern North Island from Hauraki Plains, lower Waikato Valley and the Coromandel Peninsula northwards; scrub and vines. Populations on Coromandel Peninsula south to Te Aroha include individuals inseparable from K. c. cutora and others like K. c. cumberi so must be considered intermediate. The boundary between K. c. cutora and K. c. cumberi is ill-defined extending from Cape Colville to Tongaparutu River mouth. Recorded every month of the year but rarely in August through June.

Kikihia cutora exulis (Hudson 1950)

Type: Kermadec Islands. Te Papa

Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, coastal forest on shrubs and trees including Myoporum. Not reported yet from the other islands of the group. September through March.

Kikihia dugdalei Fleming 1984

Type: Whakarewarewa, Rotorua. NZAC

(formerly known as Kikihia vernalis)

N.I. Throughout. Whangarei, Hauraki Plains, Rotorua, E. Wellington and Upper Hutt. Common in hills above Days Bay, Wellington. Seems to prefer mingimingi (Cyathodes) shrubs. Late October through March.
Kikihia horologium Fleming 1984

Type: Kea Point Track, Mount Cook NP. Te Papa

S.I. Kaikoura Mountains, Mt. Owen and main divide north western S.I. from Mt. Cook N.P. and Douglas Valley to Nelson (Dunn Mt.), crossing E. through Nelson Lakes area. (lacks red spots on coxae). On subalpine shrubs. January and February; fewer in March.

Kikihia laneorum Fleming 1984

Type: Opepe Historical Reserve. Te Papa

N.I. From Coromandel south to Wellington. Prefers tall forest canopy in shade. January through April.

Kikihia longula (Hudson 1950)

Type: Pitt Island, Chatham Islands. Te Papa

Chatham Is. grass, scrub, forests.

Kikihia muta aotea(western).
(undescribed subspecies, K. sp. MAW; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

N.I. N.I. From New Plymouth east to central volcanic plateau and then northeast towards east cape (but north of eastern aotea, below). In grass, flax, and low herbs and shrubs, scrub, bracken.

Kikihia muta aotea(eastern)
(undescribed subspecies, K. sp. MAE; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

Eastern half of the NI East of the Tararuas and Ruahines from East Cape to Wainuiomata (approximately). The Wainuiomata population has 4 tymbal ribs but this changes to five further north within this haplotype

Kikihia muta muta (Fabricius 1775).

Type: Ship Cove. BMNH

2 short, 2 long tymbal ridges. "Trans-cook" K. muta.

N.I. South western coast from Wellington to Vinegar Hill and New Plymouth. S.I. Eastern Coast: Marlborough through Canterbury to Oamaru but not in Kaikoura area; In grass, flax, and other monocots. Occasionally in low herbs and shrubs.

Kikihia muta Eskdale.
(undescribed subspecies, K. sp. ME; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

N.I. K. muta variant haplotype found in the Eskdale area and surrounded by K eastern aotea, with five tymbal ribs.

Kikihia southwestlandica
(undescribed K. sp. WS; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. West Coast from Pancake Rocks to Okuru; Otago, Southland (local).

Kikihia northwestlandica
(undescribed K. sp. WN; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

West Coast from C. Farewell to Pancake Rocks and up the Buller Gorge past St. Arnaud and east into the Wairau Valley.

Kikihia murihikua
(undescribed, K. sp. M; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. Southwest coast from Mt. Cook to Stewart Is. Fiordland, Southland, and Otago south and west of Taieri River, extending up main range to Hermitage. Lowland and subalpine scrub and grass.
"murihikua kirklistoni" Benmore Transmission Road, near Black Forest. Distinctive song.

Kikihia nelsonensis (= Kikihia hudsoni)
(undescribed K. sp. N; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication )

S.I. Nelson-Marlborough, west to Takaka valley, S. to upper Buller, E. to Port Underwood saddle. Lowland shrubs (sometimes trees and grass) in hills adjacent to K. muta territory.

Kikihia ochrina (Walker 1858)

Type: Wellington Botanical Gardens. Te Papa

N.I. Three Kings, North Island throughout but absent from mountains in south. Evergreen shrubs and small trees. (K. aprilina is a synonym). Mid February through April.

Kikihia paxillulae Fleming 1984

Type: Charwell Forks School, Marlborough. Te Papa

S.I. Kaikoura plain and in foothills south of the Seaward Kaikoura Range, from Coldstream Creek and north of the valley of the Conway River. Sympatric with K. muta in north and south of its range. In grass and shrubs. January and February.

Kikihia peninsularis
(undescribed K. sp. P; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. Banks Peninsula. In shrubs. Overlaps with K. subalpina

Kikihia rosea (Walker 1850)

Type: BMNH

S.I. Coastal from Dunedin north to Omaru and inland up Waitaki River Valley to Otematata, also north of Lake Benmore and along the western shore of Lake Ohau; Distinctive, complex song with geographic variation. Use of this name subject to reexamination of type collected by Percy Earl in 1840's probably near Waikouaiti Whaling Station. Overlaps with K. subalpina.

Kikihia scutellaris (Walker 1850)

Type: Karori, Wellington. NZAC

Throughout. Common in the small tree, Melicytus ramiflorus (Whiteywood). Can be very abundant.
S.I. Recently colonized? at Picton within a few kilometers of Ferry terminal.

Kikihia subalpina (Hudson 1891)

Type: Mt. Holdsworth, Tararuas. Te Papa

N.I. Mainly montane to subalpine shrubs in southern half of N.I from central plateau and Mt. Egmont down the central mountain range to Wellington; overlaps widely w/ 4 lowland sp
S.I. Throughout, from timberline to sea level. Becomes a forest canopy rather than a shrub species. The South Island lineage is either a new subspecies or a new species and is designated K. sp. SS.

Kikihia tasmani
(undescribed, K. sp. T; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. At Cobb dam (on Maori onion); Tasman Mountains, south to Mt. Murchison where the population co-occurs with K. horologium.

Kikihia tuta
(undescribed, K. sp. U; please do not use in press! see note on valid publication)

S.I. Nelson lowlands, 3 main patches. Hybridizes with K. muta in Kaituna Valley south of Havelock. Also appears to hybridize with K. nelsonensis. In grass, rushes, and flax, and occasionally in low herbs and shrubs.

MAORICICADA (ca. 14 spp.)

Group A. Aedeagus longer than the pygophore and coiled in repose

Maoricicada campbelli(Myers 1923)

Type: Otira. British Museum

N.I. Tongariro N.P. and Mt. Tauhara summit
S.I. Wide distribution, except Canterbury Plains and Banks Peninsula.

Riverbeds of small streams with small rounded boulders, bare lava rock on Mt. Ruapehu, bare ground, dry pasture grass and bare ground along streambeds and into the Omarama Hills. North Central Otago populations are likely a separate species.

Maoricicada cassiope(Hudson 1891)

Lectotype: Dun Mountain, Nelson. Te Papa

N.I. Tongariro N.P. and adjacent pumice areas of Kaimanawa and N. Ruahine Ranges (absent from Tararuas),

S.I. Northern half of S.I. From Cobb and Dunn Mountain in the west to Marlborough Sounds in the east and then south to Porterís Pass, Mt. Cook, and Alford Forest radio station.

Subalpine scrub, especially Dracophyllum, sings from bare rock and small shrubs just below the ski village on the Bruce Road at Mt. Ruapheu. Sings in the canopy of low beech forest on Mount Robert, Nelson Lakes district.

Maoricicada hamiltoni (Myers 1926)

Holotype: Otira River. British Museum.

Southern tip of N.I. from Pohangina to the northern half of S.I. to the Tasman River. Sings from rocks and gravel in braided river beds.

Maoricicada iolanthe (Hudson 1891)

Lectotype: Karori. NZAC

N.I. From Thames to Wellington. Wellington Peninsula, Tararua foothills, Rotorua district, Hauraki Plains, Coromandels Scrub and forest.

Maoricicada lindsayi (Myers 1923)

Holotype: British Museum.

S.I. North Canterbury and south Marlborough lowlands and along saddle road between Kaikoura and Wairau on clay banks and loess rock outcrops on the Wairau side.

Maoricicada myersi (Fleming 1971)

Holotype: Orongorogo River mouth. Te Papa

N.I. Southern tip. Orongorongo River coastal plain, endangered. Sings from angular scree on stream fan outwash and along stream beds up into the mountains. Also along nearby cliff sides.

Group B. Aedeagus shorter than the pygophore and not coiled in repose

Maoricicada alticola Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: Turk Ridge. NZAC

S.I. Nelson-Marlborough. Turk Ridge, E. of Spencer and Travers Ranges to the summit of Rainbow Ski Field (and north?). High fellfield above 6000 feet.

Maoricicada clamitans Dugdale and Fleming 1978 (formerly M. mackenziei)

Type: Mackenzie Pass, South Canterbury. Te Papa

S.I. southern half, subalpine areas S. Canterbury, Central Otago, Rock and Pillar Range, etc. Subalpine Aciphyla scrub and tussock.

Maoricicada mangu mangu (FB White 1879) (See subspecies below)

Type: Porter's Pass. BMNH

S.I. Northern half east of the main divide from Dun mountain and Kaikoura Range south to Tekapo and Dalgety Ra. Mangu-like cicada found at Awakino Ski field south of the otherwise known range is probably a new species. Sings from bare ground of eroded soil slopes and smooth rock faces in subalpine regions.

Maoricicada mangu celer Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: NZAC

Turk Ridge and a few km south along Rainbow-Hanmer Road.

Maoricicada mangu gourlayi Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: Dun Mountain, Nelson. Te Papa

S.I. Nelson from Mt. Robert to Dun Mountain.

Maoricicada mangu multicostata Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: Altimalock Hut, Marlborough. Te Papa

Marlborough to Mount St. Patrick, North Canterbury. Northwest SI, in Kaikoura Range.

Maoricicada nigra nigra (Myers 1921)

Holotype: Temple Basin. BMNH.

S.I. main divide; Spenser Mts and Victoria range to Fiordland. Herbfields and fellfields often near melting snow patches. 4500 to 5000 ft.

Maoricicada nigra frigida Dugdale and Fleming 1978 (Formerly "rupicola")

Type: Old Man Range. NZAC

S.I. summits of high mountains of central Otago, south of Clutha Valley. Herbfields and fellfields often near melting snow patches. 4500 to 5000 ft.

Maoricicada oromelaena (Myers 1926)

Holotype: Mt. Cleughearn, Hunter Mountains. BMNH

S.I. main divide from Lewis pass Birch, Travers and Victoria Ranges (including Torlesse and Richardson Ranges) south to Fiordland mostly above 1300m. Alpine rock falls and crags.

Maoricicada otagoensis otagoensis Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: Coronet Peak. Te Papa

S.I. Otago, s. of Clutha R. in Mts. 1000-1400m; north of Mararoa-Oreti gap. e.g. Coronet Peak, Nevis Saddle, Mid Dome, Pisa and Old Man ranges. Schist screes in tussock (c. 3500-4000 feet).

Maoricicada otagoensis maceweni Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: Cheviot Face, Takitimu Range. Te Papa

S.I. Takitimu Range, known localities on Western Flanks. 850-1440m. Screes and Gullies.

Maoricicada phaeoptera Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Type: Sentinel Peak, Wanaka. Te Papa

S.I. Canterbury and North Otago, north of Clutha River to Mackenzie Basin. Subalpine tussock-meadow with bare rocks. Omarama Saddle, L. Ohau, Tekapo Ski ground (Round Hill).

Maoricicada tenuis Dugdale and Fleming 1978

Holotype: Island Pass. NZAC

S.I. Iron Hill, NW Nelson and Nelson Lakes district, Gordon's Knob, Mt. Robert and Marlborough ranges to Island Pass. Apressed scrub and rock.

NOTOPSALTA (1 species; this genus also in Australia but probably the Australian species should be placed in a different genus)

Notopsalta sericea (Walker 1850)

N.I. North of upper Hutt upwards, low elevation, esp. northern half from Three Kings south to Wanganui and Mangaweka on W., to Palliser Beach in east. Kaitoke Gap. At central volcanic area south of the Hinemaiaia needs definition. Temara lakes lookout was most southern distribution but found by D. Lane, Bert Borger, T. Buckley, and C. Simon at the base of coastal cliffs east of Cape Turakirae. On road sides and roads on clay banks and on grasses.

RHODOPSALTA (3 species)

Rhodopsalta cruentata(Fabricius 1775)

N.I. Throughout. throughout the North Island (although rare in Northland) S.I. On the west coast up through NW Nelson and Marlborough and on the east coast down to Kaikoura). No East Otago records (as of 1967). Found in alpine (Mt. Ruapehu) and low elevation shrubs, dune grass, introduced shrubs and low trees. Rare in Northland. Common in driest habitats sympatric with K. muta in places.

Rhodopsalta microdora (Hudson 1936)

Type: Cape Kidnappers. Te Papa

Described by Hudson from two female specimens from the eastern North Island but later found by our research team to occupy central-eastern coastal North Island and to be widely distributed on the South Island east of the "main divide" (Southern Alps) from the Wairau River Valley south.

Rhodopsalta leptomera (Myers 1921)

N.I. West coast dunes, especially S.W. but ranging to far Northland, also in eastern Northland near Warkworth and Whangaparoa Peninsula. No other east coast record. On Marrim grass and native dune grass. Recently found at Ureti Beach (Northland) and Castle Point On the east coast of the North Island in artificially stabilized dunes with planted grass (may have been introduced on the grasses).