Published scientific literature on periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.).

More general reviews are in bold type. This list does not include many older references containing primarily distribution records. Last updated February 28, 2003. We welcome corrections or suggested additions to the list.


Alexander, R. D. 1975. Natural selection and specialized chorusing behavior in acoustical insects. Pp. 35-77 In: D. Pimentel, ed. Insects, Science, and Society. Academic Press, New York.

Alexander, R. D. 1968. Arthropods. In: T. A. Sebeok (ed). Animal Communication. Techniques of Study and Results of Research. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Univ. Press, pp. 167-216.

Alexander, R. D., and T. E. Moore. 1958. Studies on the acoustical behavior of seventeen-year cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Ohio J. Sci. 58: 107-127.

Alexander, R. D. 1957. Sound production and associated behavior in insects. Ohio Journal of Science 57: 101-113.

Alexander, R. D., and T. E. Moore. 1962. The evolutionary relationships of 17-year and 13-year cicadas, and three new species (Homoptera, Cicadidae, Magicicada). Univ. of Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Pub. 121: 1-59.

Allard, H. 1937. Some observations on the behavior of the periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim L. Am. Nat. 71: 588-604.

Allard, H. A. 1946. Synchronous singing of the 17-year cicadas. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 48: 93-95.

Andrews, E. A. 1921. Periodical cicadas in Baltimore, Md. Sci. Mon. 12: 310-320.

Anon. 1932. Periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol., Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 12: 424-425.

Anon. 1933. Periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol., Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 13: 336-338.

Anon. 1936. Periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol., Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 16: 525-527.

Anon. 1937. Periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol., Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 17: 111-116, 617-618.

Anon. 1940. Periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol., Ins. Pest Surv. Bull. 20: 129, 184, 267-269, 342, 576-579.

Archie, J., C. Simon, and D. Wartenberg. 1985. Geographical patterns and population structure in periodical cicadas based on spatial analysis of allozyme frequencies. Evolution 39: 1261-1274

Asquith, D. 1954. The periodical cicada in southern Pennsylvania in 1953. J. Econ. Entomol. 47: 457-459.

Barnett, A. 1997. Odd timing keeps cicadas in their prime. New Sci. 153: 18.

Beamer, R. H. 1928. Studies on the biology of Kansas Cicadidae. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 18: 155-263.

Beamer, R. H. 1931. Notes on the 17-year cicada in Kansas. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 4: 53-58.

Behncke, H. 2000. Periodical cicadas. J. Math. Biol. 40: 413-431.

Bessey, C. E. 1880. On the distribution of the seventeen-year cicada of the brood of 1878, or Riley's Brood XIII, in Iowa. Am. Entomol. 3: 27-30.

Brown, J. J., and G. M. Chippendale. 1973. Nature and fate of the nutrient reserves of the periodical (17-year) cicada. J. Insect Physiol. 19: 607-614.

Bryce, D., and N. Aspinwall. 1975. Sympatry of two broods of the periodical cicada (Magicicada) in Missouri. Am. Midl. Nat. 93(2): 450-454.

Bulmer, M. G. 1977. Periodical insects. Am. Nat. 111: 1099-1117.

Butler, A. W. 1885. The periodical cicada in southeastern Indiana. Proc. A. A. A. S. 34: 328-329.

Butler, A. W. 1886. The periodical cicada in southeastern Indiana. Bull. USDA Div. Entomol. 12: 24-31.

Cantrall, I. J. 1937. Notes on the infection of the seventeen-year cicada, Magicicada septendecim (Linn.) by the fungus, Massospora cicadina Peck. Bull. of the Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 32: 120-121.

Cassin, J. 1851. Note on the above species of cicada, and on the Cicada septendecim. Linn. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 5: 273-275.

Chilcote, C. A., and F. W. Stehr. 1984. A new record for Magicicada septendecim in Michigan (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 17: 53-54.

Clark, D. R. 1992. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no threat to birds. Environ. Monit. and Assess. 20: 47-54.

Cooley, J. R., C. Simon, and D. C. Marshall. 2003. Temporal separation and speciation in periodical cicadas. BioScience, 53: 151-157.

Cooley, J. R., and D. C. Marshall. 2001. Sexual signaling in periodical cicadas, Magicicada spp. Behaviour 138: 827-855.

Cooley, J. R., C. Simon, D. C. Marshall, K. Slon, and C. Ehrhardt. 2001. Allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas supported by mitochondrial DNA, song pitch, and abdominal sternite coloration data. Molecular Ecology 10:661-672.

Cooley, J. R., G. S. Hammond, and D. C. Marshall. 1998. Effects of enamel paint on the behavior and survival of the periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim (Homoptera), and the lesser migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera). Great Lakes Entomol. 31: 161-168.

Cory, E. N., and P. Knight. 1937. Observations on Brood X of the periodical cicada in Maryland. J. Econ. Entomol. 30: 287-294.

Cox, R. T., and C. E. Carlton. 2003. A comment on gene introgression versus en masse cycle switching in the evolution of 13-year and 17-year life cycles in periodical cicadas. Evolution 57: 428-432.

Cox, R. T. 1992. A comment on Pleistocene population bottlenecks in periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.). Evolution 46: 845-846.

Cox, R. T., and C. E. Carlton. 1988. Paleoclimatic influences in the evolution of periodical cicadas (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.). Am. Midl. Nat. 120: 183-193.

Cox, R. T., and C. E. Carlton. 1991. Evidence of genetic dominance of the 13-year life cycle in periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.). Am. Midl. Nat. 125: 63-74.

Cox, R. T., and C. E. Carlton. 1998. A commentary on prime numbers and life cycles of periodical cicadas. Am. Nat. 152: 162-1647.

Craig, F. W. 1941. Observations on the periodical cicada. J. Econ. Entomol. 34: 122-123.

Davis, W. T. 1928. The occasional appearance of the seventeen-year cicada in the fall, and Brood No. 1 on Long Island, NY in 1927. Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 23: 64-66.

Deay, H. O. 1952. The periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim (L.) in Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 62: 203-206.

Dunning, D. C., J. A. Byers, and C. D. Zanger. 1979. Courtship in two species of periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim and Magicicada cassini. Anim. Behav. 27: 1073-1090.

Dybas, H. S. 1969. The 17-year cicada: a four-year "mistake"? Bull. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 40: 10-12.

Dybas, H. S., and D. D. Davis. 1962. A population census of seventeen-year periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Ecology 43: 432-444.

Dybas, H. S., and M. Lloyd. 1962. Isolation by habitat in two synchronized species of periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Ecology 43: 444-459.

Dybas, H. S., and M. Lloyd. 1974. The habitats of 17-year periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.). Ecol. Monogr. 44: 279-324.

Forbush, E. H. 1924. Gulls and terns feeding on the seventeen-year cicada. Auk 41: 468-470.

Forsyth, H, Y., Jr. 1975. Ovipositional host plants of 17-year cicadas. Ohio Agric. Res. Dev. Ctr. Res. Circ. 210. 19 pp.

Forsyth, H. Y., Jr. 1976. Distribution and species of 17-year cicadas in Broods V and VIII in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 76: 254-258.

Forsyth, H. Y., Jr. 1976. Estimating nymphal populations of 17-year cicadas in eastern Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 76: 95-96.

Forsyth, H. Y., Jr. 1976. Number of seventeen-year cicada eggs per nest. Environ. Entomol. 5: 169-170.

Forsyth, H. Y., Jr. 1977. Effect of sun exposure on emergence of 17-year cicadas. Ohio J. Sci. 77: 183-185.

Froeschner, R. C. 1952. A synopsis of the Cicadidae of Missouri. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 60: 1-14.

Graham, C., and A. B. Cochran. 1954. The periodical cicada in Maryland in 1953. J. Econ. Entomol. 47: 242-244.

Gogala, M. 1991. Cicadas in seventeen or thirteen year cycles. Proteus 54: 3-10.

Gogala, M. 1991. The discovery of seventeen and thirteen year cycles in cicadas. Proteus 54: 74-75.

Goldstein, B. 1929. A cytological study of the fungus Massospora cicadina, parasitic on the 17-year cicada, Magicicada septendecim. Am. J. Bot. 16: 394-401, plates XXIII-XXV.

Goles, E., A. B. Schultz, and M. Markus. 2001. Prime number selection of cycles in a predator-prey model. Complexity 6: 33-38.

Gossard, H. A. 1917. Distribution of the Ohio broods of periodical cicada with reference to soil. Bull. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. 311: 555-577.

Graham, C., and A. B. Cochran. 1954. The periodical cicada in Maryland in 1953. J. Econ. Entomol. 47: 242-244.

Hahus, S. C., and K. G. Smith. 1990. Food habits of Blarina, Peromyscus, and Microtus in relation to an emergence of periodical cicadas (Magicicada). J. Mammol. 71(2): 249-252.

Hahn, W. L. 1905. Note on the recurrence of Brood V of Tibicen septendecim in Porter Co, Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1905: 227.

Hamilton, D. W. 1961. Periodical cicadas, Magicicada spp., as pests in apple orchards. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 71: 116-121.

Hamilton, D. W., and M. L. Cleveland. 1964. Periodical cicadas in 1963, Brood 23. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72: 167-170.

Haseman, L. 1915. The periodical cicada in Missouri. Univ. Missouri Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 137: 1-33.

Haseman, L. 1919. Brood X of the periodical cicada in Missouri. J. Econ. Entomol. 12: 467.

Heath, J. E. 1964. Temperature regulation of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini. Am. Zool. 4: 31.

Heath, J. E. 1967. Temperature responses of the periodical "17-year" cicada, Magicicada cassini (Homoptera, Cicadidae). Am. Midl. Nat. 77: 64-76.

Heath, J. E. 1968. Thermal synchronization of emergence in periodical "17-year" cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Am. Midl. Nat. 80: 440-447.

Heliovaara, K., and R. Vaisanen. 1985. 13- and 17-year cicadas of North America. Luonnon tutkija 89: 88-93.

Heliovaara, K., R. Vaisanen, and C. Simon. 1994. The evolutionary ecology of periodical insects. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9: 475-480.

Hewitt, G. M., R. A. Nichols, and M. G. Ritchie. 1988. 1868 and all that for Magicicada. Nature 336: 206-207.

Hickernell, L. M. 1920. The digestive system of the periodical cicada, Tibicen septendecim Linn. I. Morphology of the system in the adult cicada. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 13: 223-242.

Hickernell, L. M. 1923. The digestive system of the periodical cicada, Tibicen septendecim Linn. III. Morphology of the system in the nymph. Biol. Bull. 45: 213-221.

Hildreth, S. P. 1830. Notices and observations on the American cicada, or locust. Am. J. Sci. 18: 47-50.

Hoback, W. W., R. L. Rana, D. W. Stanley. 1999. Fatty acid compositions of phospholipids and triacylglycerols of selected tissues, and fatty acid biosynthesis in adult periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim. Compar. Biochem. and Physiol. 122: 355-362.

Hogmire, H. W., T. A. Baugher, V. L. Crim, and S. I. Walter. 1990. Effects and control of periodical cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae) oviposition injury on nonbearing apple trees. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 2401-2404.

Hoppenstedt, F. C., and J. B. Keller. 1976. Synchronization of periodical cicada emergences. Science 194: 335-337.

Howard, L. O. 1898. A new egg-parasite of the periodical cicada. Canadian Entomol. 30: 102-103.

Howard, W. J. 1937. Bird behavior as a result of emergence of seventeen-year locusts. Wilson Bull. 49: 43-44.

Huber, F., H. U. Kleindienst, T. E. Moore, K. Schildberger, and T. Weber. 1990. Acoustic communication in periodical cicadas: neuronal responses to songs of sympatric species. In: Gribakin, F.G., Wiese, K. & Popov, A.V. [Eds]. Sensory systems and communication in arthropods. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, Boston & Berlin 1990: i-xviii, 1-423.

Huber, F., D. W. Wohlers, and T. E. Moore. 1980. Auditory nerve and interneurone responses to natural sounds in several species of cicadas. Physiol. Entomol. 5: 25-45.

Hunter, P. E., and H. O. Lund. 1960. Biology of the periodical cicada in Georgia. J. Econ. Entomol. 53: 961-963.

Hyslop, J. A. 1935. The periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Entomol. and Plant Quar. Bur. Series E-364. 12p.

Irwin, M. D., and J. R. Coelho. 2000. Distribution of the Iowan Brood of Periodical CIcadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.) in Illinois. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 93: 82- 89.

Ito, Y. 1998. Role of escape from predators in periodical cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae) cycles. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 91: 493-496.

Jacobs, M. 1954. Observations on the two forms of the periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim (L.). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 63: 177-179.

James, D. A., K. S. Williams, and K. G. Smith. 1986. Survey of 1985 periodical cicada (Homoptera: Magicicada) emergence sites in Washington County, Arkansas, with reference to ecological implications. Proc. Ark. Acad. Sci. 40: 37-39

Kalisz, P. J. 1994. Spatial and temporal patterns of emergence of periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in a mountainous forest region. Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 55: 118-123.

Karban, R. 1980. Periodical cicadas impose periodical oak wood accumulation. Nature: 287: 326-327.

Karban, R. 1981. Effects of local density on fecundity and mating speed for periodical cicadas. Oecologia 51: 260-264.

Karban, R. 1981. Flight and dispersal of periodical cicadas. Oecologia 49: 385-390.

Karban, R. 1982. Experimental removal of 17-year cicada nymphs and growth of host apple trees. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 90: 74-81.

Karban, R. 1982. Increased reproductive success at high densities and predator satiation for periodical cicadas. Ecology 63: 321-328.

Karban, R. 1983. Induced responses of cherry trees to periodical cicada oviposition. Oecologia 59: 226-231.

Karban, R. 1983. Sexual selection, body size and sex-related mortality in the cicada Magicicada cassini. Am. Midl. Nat. 109: 324-330.

Karban, R. 1984. Opposite density effects of nymphal and adult mortality for periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.). Ecology 65: 1656-1661.

Karban, R. 1985. Addition of periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) nymphs to an oak (Quercus ilicifolia) forest: Effects on cicada density, acorn production, and rootlet density. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 58: 269-276.

Karban, R. 1986. Prolonged development in cicadas. In: F. Taylor and R. Karban (eds), Evolution of Insect Life Cycles. NY: Springer-Verlag.

Karban, R. 1997. Evolution of prolonged development: a life table analysis for periodical cicadas. Am. Nat. 150: 446-461.

Karlin, A. A., K. S. Williams, K. G. Smith, and D. W. Sugg. 1991. Biochemical evidence for rapid changes in heterozygosity in a population of periodical cicadas (Magicicada tredecassini). Am. Midl. Nat. 125: 213-221.

Kellner, C. J., K. G. Smith, N. C. Wilkinson, and D. A. James. 1990. Influence of periodical cicadas on foraging behavior of insectivorous birds in an Ozark forest. Stud. Avian Biol. 13: 375-380.

Klein, U., C. Bock, W. A. Kafka, and T. E. Moore. 1988. Antennal sensilla of Magicicada cassini (Fisher) (Homoptera: Cicadidae): fine structure and electrophysiological evidence for olfaction. Int. J. of Insect Morphol. and Embryol. 17: 153-167

Kritsky, G. 1987. An historical analysis of periodical cicadas in Indiana (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 97: 295-322.

Kritsky, G. 1988. The 1987 emergence of the periodical cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.: Brood X) in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 88: 168-170

Kritsky, G. 1989. Periodical cicadas. Nature 341: 288-289.

Kritsky, G. 1992. The 1991 emergence of the periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.: Brood XIV) in Ohio. Ohio J. of Science 92: 38-39

Kritsky, G., and R. H. Meyer. 1976. The emergence of the periodical cicada (Brood XXIII) in Illinois in 1976 (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Trans., Ill. St. Acad. Sci. 69: 196-199.

Kritsky, G., and S. Simon. 1996. The unexpected 1995 emergence of periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada) in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 96: 27-28.

Kritsky, G., and F. N. Young. 1992. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood XIII) in Indiana in 1990 (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 100: 45-47

Kritsky, G., and F. N. Young. 1993. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood XIV) in Indiana in 1991 (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 101: 59-61

Krohne, D. T., T. J. Couillard, and J. C. Riddle. 1991. Population responses of Peromyscus leucopus and Blarina brevicauda to emergence of periodical cicadas. Am. Midl. Nat. 126: 317-321.

Leidy, J. 1851. Notes on the fungus disease of Cicada septendecim. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 5: 235.

LeBaron, W. 1872. Periodical cicada. In: Second annual report on the noxious and beneficial insects of the state of Illinois. Trans., Ill. St. Hort. Soc. for 1871, p. 124-133.

Leonard, D. E. 1964. Biology and ecology of Magicicada septendecim (L.) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 72: 19-23.

Lloyd, M. 1984. Periodical cicadas. Antenna 8: 79-91.

Lloyd, M. 1987. A successful rearing of 13-year periodical cicadas beyond their present range and beyond that of 17-year cicadas. Am. Midl. Nat. 117: 362-368.

Lloyd, M., and H. S. Dybas. 1966. The periodical cicada problem. I. Population ecology. Evolution 20: 133-149.

Lloyd, M., and H. S. Dybas. 1966. The periodical cicada problem. II. Evolution. Evolution 20: 466-505.

Lloyd, M., and R. Karban. 1983. Chorusing centers of periodical cicadas. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 56: 299-304.

Lloyd, M., G. Kritsky, and C. Simon. 1983. A simple Mendelian model for the 13- and 17-year life cycle of periodical cicadas, with historical evidence for hybridization between them. Evolution 37: 1162-1180.

Lloyd, M., and J. White. 1976. On the oviposition habits of 13-year versus 17-year periodical cicadas of the same species. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 84: 148-155.

Lloyd, M., and J. White. 1976. Sympatry of periodical cicada broods and the hypothetical four-year acceleration. Evolution 30: 786-801.

Lloyd, M., and J. White. 1980. On reconciling patchy microspatial distributions with competition models. Am. Nat. 115: 29-44.

Lloyd, M., and J. White. 1983. Why is one of the periodical cicadas (Magicicada septendecula) a comparatively rare species? Ecol. Entomol. 8: 293-303.

Lloyd, M., and J. White. 1987. Xylem feeding by periodical cicada nymphs on pine and grass roots, with novel suggestions for pest control in conifer plantations and orchards. Ohio J. Sci. 87: 50-54.

Lloyd, M., J. White, and N. Stanton. 1982. Dispersal of fungus-infected periodical cicadas to new habitat. Environ. Entomol. 11: 852-858.

Long, C. A. 1993. Evolution in periodical cicadas: a genetical explanation. Evol. Theory 10: 209-220.

Luken, J. O., and P. J. Kalisz. 1989. Soil disturbance by the emergence of periodical cicadas. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. J. 53: 310-313.

Maier, C. T. 1980. A mole's-eye view of seventeen-year periodical cicada nymphs, Magicicada septendecim (Hemiptera: Homoptera: Cicadidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 73: 147-152.

Maier, C. T. 1982. Abundance and distribution of the seventeen-year periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae - Brood II), in Connecticut. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 84: 430-439.

Maier, C. T. 1982. Observations on the seventeen-year periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim (Hemiptera: Homoptera: Cicadidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 75: 14-23.

Maier, C. T. 1985. Brood VI of 17-year periodical cicadas, Magicicada spp. (Hemiptera: Homoptera: Cicadidae): New evidence from Connecticut (USA), the hypothetical 4-year deceleration, and the status of the brood. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 93: 1019-1026.

Manter, J. A. 1974. Brood XI of the periodical cicada seems doomed. Mem. Conn. Entomol. Soc. 1974: 100-101.

Marlatt, C. L. 1898. A consideration of the validity of the old records bearing on the distribution of the broods of the periodical cicada, with particular reference to the occurrence of broods VI and XXIII in 1898. Bull. U.S. Bur. of Entomol. 18: 59-78.

Marlatt, C. L. 1898. A new nomenclature for the broods of the periodical cicada. Miscellaneous results of work of the Division of Entomology. Bull. U.S.D.A. Div. Entomol. 18: 52-58.

Marlatt, C. L. 1898. The Periodical Cicada. An account of Cicada septendecim, its natural enemies and the mean of preventing its injury. USDA Div. Entomol. Bull. 14 (New Series). Washington: Government Printing Office. 148 pp.

Marlatt, C. L. 1907. The periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol. Bull. 71: 1-181.

Marlatt, C. L. 1908. A successful seventeen-year breeding record for the periodical cicada. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 9: 16-18.

Marlatt, C. L. 1919. The "17-year locust" in 1919. U.S.D.A. Circular 127: 1-10.

Marlatt, C. L. 1923. The periodical cicada. U.S.D.A. Bur. Entomol. Bull. 71: 1-183.

Marshall, D. C., J. R. Cooley, and C. Simon. 2003. Holocene climate shifts, life-cycle plasticity, and speciation in periodical cicadas: A comment and reply to Cox and Carlton. Evolution, 57: 433-437.

Marshall, D.C. 2001. Periodical cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae) Life- cycle variations, the historical emergence record, and the geographic stability of brood distributions. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 94: 386- 399.

Marshall, D. C., and J. R. Cooley. 2000. Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of a new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecim. Evolution 54: 1313-1325.

Marshall, D. C., J. R. Cooley, R. D. Alexander, and T. E. Moore. 1996. New records of Michigan Cicadidae (Homoptera), with notes on the use of songs to monitor range changes. Great Lakes Entomol. 29: 165-169.

Martin, A., and C. Simon. 1988. Anomalous distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in periodical cicadas. Nature 336: 237-239.

Martin, A., and C. Simon. 1990. Differing levels of among-population divergence in the mitochondrial DNA of periodical cicadas related to historical biogeography. Evolution 44: 1066-1080.

Martin, A., and C. Simon. 1990. Temporal variation in insect life cycles: lessons from periodical cicadas. BioScience 40: 359-367.

May, R. 1979. Periodical cicadas. Nature 277: 347-349.

Miller, F. 1997. Effects and control of periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim and Magicicada cassini oviposition injury on urban forest trees. J. Arboriculture 23: 225-232.

Miller, F., and W. Crowley. 1998. Effects of periodical cicada ovipositional injury on woody plants. J. Arboriculture 24: 248-253.

Moore, T. E. 1993. Acoustic signals and speciation in cicadas (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadidae). Ch. 16 in: Lees, D. R., and D. Edwards, eds. Evolutionary patterns and processes. London: Academic Press.

Moore, T. E., and R. D. Alexander. 1958. The periodical cicada complex (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proc. Tenth Int. Congr. Entomol. Vol. 1 (1956): 349-356.

Moore, T. E., F. Huber, T. Weber, U. Klein, and C. Bock. 1993. Interaction between visual and phonotactic orientation during flight in Magicicada cassini (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 26: 199-221.

Moore, T. E., and R. T. Sawyer. 1966. The mechanism of cicada timbal action (Insects: Homoptera: Cicadidae). Am. Zool. 6: 509.

Morris, J. G. 1870. Sevteen-year locust two years too late. Am. Entomol. 2: 304.

Oldenburg, H. 1666. Some observations on swarms of strange insects and the mischiefs done by them. Philos. Trans. Lond. 1: 137.

Ostry, M. E., and N. A. Anderson. 1979. Infection of Populus tremuloides by Hypoxylon mammatum at oviposition sites of cicadas Magicicada septendecim. Phytopathology 69: 1041.

Ostry, M. E., and N. A. Anderson. 1983. Infection of trembling aspen by Hypoxylon mammatum through cicada oviposition wounds. Phytopathology 73: 1092-1096.

Pechuman, L. L. 1985. The periodical cicada (Magicicada septendecim): Brood VII revisited (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Entomol. News 96: 59-60.

Raina, A., L. Pannell, J. Kochansky, and H. Jaffe. 1995. Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 25: 929-932.

Reding, M. E., and S. I. Guttman. 1991. Radionuclide contamination as an influence on the morphology and genetic structre of periodical cicada (Magicicada cassini) populations. Am. Midl. Nat. 126: 322-337.

Reid, K. H. 1971. Periodical cicada: Mechanism of sound production. Science 172: 949-951.

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