Brood XIX (13-year)
The Great Southern Brood
Brood XIX is the largest (by geographical extent) brood of 13-year cicadas. This brood is also notable for including the species M. neotredecim and exhibiting a striking pattern of reproductive character displacement between M. neotredecim and M. tredecim (Cooley et al. 2001; Marshall and Cooley 2000; Simon et al. 2000).
The map above was generated from positive records in the Cicada Central Database on 31 December 2010. The database is not exhaustive, and this map is intended to portray only an approximate, present-day distribution.
The map below is based on previously published maps (Marlatt 1923; Simon 1988) and unpublished data. However, it has not been field checked, and it does not portray historical reports of brood emergences.
A project is currently underway to make new maps of periodical cicada broods. See the Magicicada mapping project homepage.
Cooley, J. R., C. Simon, D. C. Marshall, K. Slon, and C. Ehrhardt. 2001. Allochronic speciation, secondary contact, and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.): genetic, morphological, and behavioural evidence. Molecular Ecology 10:661-671.
Marlatt, C. 1923. The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology Bulletin 71.
Marshall, D. C., and J. R. Cooley. 2000. Reproductive Character Displacement and Speciation in Periodical Cicadas, with Description of a New Species, 13-Year Magicicada neotredecim. Evolution 54:1313-1325.
Simon, C., J. Tang, S. Dalwadi, G. Staley, J. Deniega, and T. R. Unnasch. 2000. Genetic Evidence for Assortative Mating between 13-Year Cicadas and Sympatric "17-Year Cicadas with 13-Year Life Cycles" Provides Support for Allochronic Speciation. Evolution 54:1326-1336.
Simon, C. 1988. Evolution of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 34:163-176.