Phylogenetics: BayesTraits Lab

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Adiantum.png EEB 349: Phylogenetics
In this lab you will learn how to use the program BayesTraits, written by Andrew Meade and Mark Pagel. BayesTraits can perform several analyses related to evaluating evolutionary correlation and ancestral state reconstruction in discrete morphological traits. This program is meant to replace the older programs Discrete and Multistate. In this lab, you will download and use BayesTraits entirely on your own laptop.

Contents

Download BayesTraits

Download BayesTraits from Mark Pagel's web site, click on the "Software" link, then click on the "Description and Downloads" link under "BayesTraits". Download the version specific to your platform. BayesTraits will unpack itself to a folder containing the program itself along with several tree and data files (e.g. Primates.txt and Primates.trees). I will hereafter refer to the folder containing these files as simply the BayesTraits folder. Go back to Mark Pagel's web site and download the manual for BayesTraits. This is a PDF file and should open in your browser window.

Download the tree and data files

For this exercise, you will use data and trees used in the SIMMAP analyses presented in this paper (you should recognize the names of at least two of the authors of this paper):

Jones C.S., Bakker F.T., Schlichting C.D., Nicotra A.B. 2009. Leaf shape evolution in the South African genus Pelargonium L'Her. (Geraniaceae). Evolution. 63:479–497.

The data and trees were not made available in the online supplementary materials for this paper, but I have obtained permission to use them for this laboratory exercise. The links below are password-protected, so ask us for the username and password before clicking on the links:

pelly.txt This is the data file. It contains data for two traits (see below) for 154 taxa in the plant genus Pelargonium.
pelly.tre This is the tree file. It contains 99 trees sampled from an MCMC analysis of DNA sequences.

If you are using version 1 of BayesTraits, it will complain about basal polytomies in the trees. The following versions of the files provide a workaround (I deleted one taxon from both the data file and the tree file to eliminate the basal polytomy):

pellyrooted.txt This is the data file. It contains data for two traits (see below) for 154 taxa in the plant genus Pelargonium.
pellyrooted.tre This is the tree file. It contains 99 trees sampled from an MCMC analysis of DNA sequences.

You should move these files to the aforementioned BayesTraits folder so that they can be easily found by the BayesTraits program.

Assessing the strength of association between two binary characters

The first thing we will do is see if the two characters (leaf dissection and leaf venation) in pelly.txt are evolutionarily correlated.

Trait 1: Leaf dissection

The leaf dissection trait comprises two states (I've merged some states in the original data matrix to produce just 2 states): 0 means leaves are entire (unlobed or shallowly lobed in the original study), and 1 means leaves are dissected (lobed, deeply lobed, or dissected in the original study).

Trait 2: Leaf venation

The leaf venation trait comprises two states: 0 means leaves are pinnately veined (one main vein runs down the long axis of the leaf blade), and 1 means leaves are palmately veined (several major veins meet at the base of the leaf).

To test whether these two traits are correlated, we will estimate the marginal likelihood under two models. The independence model assumes that the two traits are uncorrelated. The dependence model allows the two traits to be correlated in their evolution. The model with the higher marginal likelihood will be the preferred model. You will recall that we discussed both of these models in lecture, and also discussed the harmonic mean method that BayesTraits uses to evaluate models. You may wish to pull up those lectures to help answer the questions that you will encounter momentarily, as well as the BayesTraits manual, which is in the form of a pdf file included with the program.

Maximum Likelihood: Independence model

If you are using Windows, start BayesTraits by opening a console window , navigate to the BayesTraits directory, and type the following to start the program:

BayesTraits pelly.tre pelly.txt

If you are using a Mac, start BayesTraits by opening a terminal window, navigate to the BayesTraits directory, and type the following to start the program:

./BayesTraits pelly.tre pelly.txt

You should see this selection appear:

Please Select the model of evolution to use.
1)	MultiState
2)	Discrete: Independent
3)	Discrete: Dependant
4)	Continuous: Random Walk (Model A)
5)	Continuous: Directional (Model B)
6)	Continuous: Regression
7)	Independent contrast

Press the 2 key to select the Independent model. Now you should see these choices appear:

Please Select the analysis method to use.
1)	Maximum Likelihood.
2)	MCMC

Press the 1 key to select maximum likelihood. Now you should see some output showing the choices you explicitly (or implicitly) made:

Options:
Model:                           Discete Independant
Tree File Name:                  pelly.tre
Data File Name:                  pelly.txt
Log File Name:                   pelly.txt.log.txt
Summary:                         False
Seed                             3162959925
Analsis Type:                    Maximum Likelihood
ML attempt per tree:             10
Precision:                       64 bits
Cores:                           1
No of Rates:                     4
Base frequency (PI's)            None
Character Symbols:               00,01,10,11
Using a covarion model:          False
Restrictions:
    alpha1                       None
    beta1                        None 
    alpha2                       None
    beta2                        None 
Tree Information
     Trees:                      99
     Taxa:                       154
     Sites:                      1
     States:                     4

Now type run to perform the analysis, which will consist of estimating the parameters of the independent model on each of the 99 trees contained in the pelly.tre file.

Tree No	Lh	alpha1	beta1	alpha2	beta2	Root - P(0,0)	Root - P(0,1)	Root - P(1,0)	Root - P(1,1)
1	-157.362972	53.767527	34.523176	35.319157	20.707416	0.249998	0.250002	0.249998	0.250002
2	-158.179984	53.313539	34.182683	36.038859	20.997536	0.249999	0.250001	0.249999	0.250001
.
.
.
98	-156.647307	52.357626	36.749282	27.270771	13.086248	0.250244	0.249756	0.250244	0.249756 
99	-156.532925	52.321467	36.641688	27.402067	13.200124	0.250234	0.249767	0.250233	0.249766

You will notice that BayesTraits created a new file: pelly.txt.log.txt. Rename this file ml-independant.txt so that it will not be overwritten the next time you run BayesTraits.

Try to answer these questions using the output you have generated (ask us if anything doesn't make sense):

  • Which occurs at a faster rate: pinnate to palmate, or palmate to pinnate? answer
  • Which occurs at a faster rate: entire to dissected, or dissected to entire? answer
  • What do you think Root - P(1,1) means (i.e. the last column of numbers)? answer

Maximum Likelihood: Dependence model

Run BayesTraits again, this time typing 3 on the first screen to choose the dependence model and again typing 1 on the second screen to select maximum likelihood. You should see this output showing the options selected:

Options:
Model:                           Discete Dependent
Tree File Name:                  pelly.tre
Data File Name:                  pelly.txt
Log File Name:                   pelly.txt.log.txt
Summary:                         False
Seed                             3601265953
Analsis Type:                    Maximum Likelihood
ML attempt per tree:             10
Precision:                       64 bits
Cores:                           1
No of Rates:                     8
Base frequency (PI's)            None
Character Symbols:               00,01,10,11
Using a covarion model:          False
Restrictions:
    q12                          None
    q13                          None
    q21                          None
    q24                          None
    q31                          None
    q34                          None
    q42                          None
    q43                          None
Tree Information
     Trees:                      99
     Taxa:                       154
     Sites:                      1
     States:                     4

Here is an example of the output produced after you type run to start the analysis:

Tree No	Lh	q12	q13	q21	q24	q31	q34	q42	q43	Root - P(0,0)	Root - P(0,1)	Root - P(1,0)	Root - P(1,1)
1	-151.930254	66.451053	37.783888	0.000000	62.220033	23.997490	23.299393	46.110432	36.632979	0.24999	0.249981	0.250026	0.250000
2	-152.925691	67.152271	38.611193	0.000000	60.925185	24.514488	23.937433	45.313366	37.199310	0.24999	0.249983	0.250023	0.250001
.
.
.
98	-150.816306	36.534843	27.359325	0.000000	66.563262	19.823546	24.944519	63.940577	31.074092	0.250048	0.249750	0.250304	0.249898
99	-150.712705	37.316351	27.260833	0.000000	64.364694	20.107653	25.004246	60.945163	31.658536	0.250030	0.249779	0.250272	0.249919

Before doing anything else, rename the file pelly.txt.log.txt to ml-dependant.txt so that it will not be overwritten the next time you run BayesTraits.

Try to answer these questions using the output you have generated:

  • What type of joint evolutionary transitions seem to often have very low rates (look for an abundance of zeros in a column)? answer
  • What type of joint evolutionary transitions seem to often have very high rates (look for columns with rates in the hundreds)? answer

Bayesian MCMC: Dependence model

Run BayesTraits again, typing 3 on the first screen to choose the dependence model and this time typing 2 on the second screen to select MCMC. You should see this output showing the options selected:

Options:
Model:                           Discete Dependent
Tree File Name:                  pelly.tre
Data File Name:                  pelly.txt
Log File Name:                   pelly.txt.log.txt
Summary:                         False
Seed                             3792635164
Precision:                       64 bits
Cores:                           1
Analysis Type:                   MCMC
Sample Period:                   1000
Iterations:                      1010000
Burn in:                         10000
MCMC ML Start:                   False
Schedule File:                   pelly.txt.log.txt.Schedule.txt
Rate Dev:                        AutoTune
No of Rates:                     8
Base frequency (PI's)            None
Character Symbols:               00,01,10,11
Using a covarion model:          False
Restrictions:
   q12                          None
   q13                          None
   q21                          None
   q24                          None
   q31                          None
   q34                          None
   q42                          None
   q43                          None 
Prior Information:
   Prior Categories:            100
   q12                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q13                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q21                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q24                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q31                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q34                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q42                          uniform 0.00 100.00
   q43                          uniform 0.00 100.00
Tree Information
    Trees:                      99
    Taxa:                       154
    Sites:                      1
    States:                     4

Before typing run type the following command, which tells BayesTraits to change all priors from the default Uniform(0,100) to an Exponential distribution with mean 30:

pa exp 30

Here is an example of the output produced after you type run to start the analysis:

Iteration	Lh	Harmonic Mean	Tree No	q12	q13	q21	q24	q31	q34	q42	q43	Root - P(0,0)	Root - P(0,1)	Root - P(1,0)	Root - P(1,1)
11000	-155.195365	-155.195365	78	14.423234	34.800270	8.845985	45.927148	12.622435	50.476188	52.844895	32.149168	0.250068	0.249969	0.249994	0.249968
12000	-154.161705	-154.806538	82	64.601017	12.382781	9.259134	51.796365	12.002095	23.744903	30.316089	21.865930	0.249936	0.249957	0.250095	0.250012 .
.
.
1009000	-154.343996	-158.180036	30	33.555198	50.086092	11.294490	38.518607	24.461032	47.295157	43.477964	21.726938	0.250057	0.249939	0.250045	0.249959
1010000	-154.195259	-158.179054	87	29.584898	35.410909	2.003582	61.981073	16.976124	14.895266	49.111354	14.419644	0.251115	0.247854	0.252551	0.248480

Before doing anything else, rename the file pelly.txt.log.txt to mcmc-dependant.txt so that it will not be overwritten the next time you run BayesTraits.

A couple of new columns have shown up in the output from the Bayesian analysis that were absent from the ML analysis output. The Harmonic Mean column provides a running estimate of the marginal likelihood. The fact that it is a running estimate means that the estimate is updated using each new sample so that the best estimate of the marginal likelihood from the entire run is provided on the last line of the output.

You will also notice that a column named 'Tree No is present that shows which of the 99 trees in the supplied pelly.tre> treefile was chosen at random to be used for that particular sample point. BayesTraits is trying to mimic sampling trees from the posterior distribution here; it cannot actually sample trees from the posterior because we have given it only data for two morphological characters, which would not provide nearly enough information to estimate the phylogeny for 154 taxa.

Try to answer these questions using the output you have generated:

  • What is the estimated log marginal likelihood for this analysis? answer
  • Based on the Bayesian Model Selection lecture, do you expect this to be an accurate estimate of the true log marginal likelihood? If not, is it an over- or and under-estimate? answer

Run BayesTraits again, this time specifying the Independent model, and again using MCMC and pa exp 30. Rename the output file from pelly.txt.log.txt to mcmc-independant.txt.

  • What is the estimated log marginal likelihood for this analysis? answer
  • Which is the better model according to these estimates of marginal likelihood? answer

Run BayesTraits again, specifying Dependent model, MCMC and, this time, specify the reversible-jump approach using the command rj exp 30. Type run to start, then when it finishes rename the output file rjmcmc-dependent.txt.

The reversible-jump approach carries out an MCMC analysis in which the number of model parameters (the dimension of the model) potentially changes from one iteration to the next. The full model allows each of the 8 rate parameters to be estimated separately, while other models restrict the values of some rate parameters to equal the values of other rate parameters. The output contains a column titled Model string that summarizes the model in a string of 8 symbols corresponding to the 8 rate parameters q12, q13, q21, q24, q31, q34, q42, and q43. For example, the model string "'1 0 Z 0 1 1 0 2" sets q21 to zero (Z), q13=q24=q42 (parameter group 0), q12=q31=q34 (parameter group 1), and q43 has its own non-zero value distinct from parameter groups 0 and 1.

You could copy the "spreadsheet" part of the output file into Excel and sort by the model string column, but let's instead use Python to summarize the output file. Download the file btsummary.py file and run it as follows:

python btsummary.py

This should produce counts of model strings. (If it doesn't, check to make sure your output file is named rjmcmc-dependent.txt because btsummary.py tries to open a file by that name.) Answer the following questions using the counts provided by btsummary.py.

  • Which model string is most common? answer
  • What does this model imply? answer

Notice that many (but not all) model strings have Z for q21. One way to estimate the marginal posterior probability of the hypothesis that q21=0 is to sum the counts for all model strings that have Z in that third position corresponding to q21. It is easy to modify btsummary.py to do this for us: open btsummary.py and locate the line containing the regular expression search that pulls out all the model strings from the BayesTrait output file:

model_list = re.findall("'[Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9]", stuff, re.M | re.S)

The re.findall function performs a regular expression search of the text stored in the variable stuff looking for strings that have a series of 8 space-separated characters, each of which is either the character Z or a digit between 0 and 9 (inclusive). Copy this line, then comment out one copy by starting the line with the hash (#) character. Now modify the other copy by forcing the regular expression search to look only for model strings having a Z in the third position:

#model_list = re.findall("'[Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9]", stuff, re.M | re.S)
model_list = re.findall("'[Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9] [Z0-9]", stuff, re.M | re.S)

Rerun btsummary.py, and now the total matches should equal the number of model strings sampled in which q21=0.

  • So what is the estimated marginal posterior probability that q21=0? answer
  • Why is the term marginal appropriate here (as in marginal posterior probability)? answer

Estimating ancestral states

Xerophytevenation.png
The Jones et al. 2009 study estimated ancestral states using SIMMAP. In particular, they found that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the xerophytic (dry-adapted) clade of pelargoniums almost certainly had pinnate venation (see red circle in figure on right). Let's see what BayesTraits says.

Start BayesTraits in the usual way, specifying 1 (Multistate) on the first screen and 2 (MCMC) on the second. After the options are output, type the following commands in, one line at a time, finishing with the run command:

pa exp 30
addmrca xero alternans104 rapaceum130
run

The addmrca command tells BayesTraits to add columns of numbers to the output that display the probabilities of each state for each character in the most recent common ancestor of the taxa listed (2 taxa are sufficient to define the MRCA, but more taxa may be included). The column headers for the last four columns of output should be

xero - S(0) - P(0) <-- character 0 (dissection), probability of state 0 (unlobed)
xero - S(0) - P(1) <-- character 0 (dissection), probability of state 1 (dissected)
xero - S(1) - P(0) <-- character 1 (venation), probability of state 0 (pinnate)
xero - S(1) - P(1) <-- character 1 (venation), probability of state 1 (palmate)
  • Which state is most common at the xerophyte MRCA node for leaf venation? answer
  • Which state is most common at the xerophyte MRCA node for leaf dissection? answer

That concluded the introduction to BayesTraits. A glance through the manual will convince you that there is much more to this program than we have time to cover in a single lab period, but you should know enough now to explore the rest on your own if you need these features.

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