Ecosystems and Biogeochemistry

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Course Description

Ecosystems and Biogeochemistry

Ecosystem topics on 29 September, 1 and 6 October and Biogeochemistry topics on 8, 13, 17 and 19 October at 1:30pm in the Bamford Room Discussions led by Dr. Gene E. Likens, Distinguished Research Professor

Course Outline

29 September 2009


1 October


6 October


8 October


13 October


17 October


19 October


Assigned Readings

Ecosystem Ecology

Likens, G. E.  1998.  Limitations to intellectual progress in ecosystem science.  pp. 247-271.  In: M. L. Pace and P. M. Groffman (eds.)., Successes, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science.  7th Cary Conference, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York.  Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Anker, P.  2002.  The context of ecosystem theory.  Ecosystems 5:611-613.
Tansley, Arthur George (prepared by Pedar Anker).  2002.  The temporal genetic series as a means of approach to philosophy.  Ecosystems 5:614-624.


Carpenter, S. R., K. L. Cottingham and D. E. Schindler. 1992. Biotic feedbacks in lake phosphorus cycles. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:332-336.

Elser, J. 2006. Biological stoichiometry: a chemical bridge between ecosystem ecology and evolutionary biology. Amer. Natur. 168:S25-S35.

Likens, G. E. and D. C. Buso. 2006. Variation in streamwater chemistry throughout the Hubbard Brook Valley. Biogeochemistry 78:1-30.

Vernadsky, W. I. 1945. The biosphere and the noösphere. Amer. Sci. 33:1-12.

Vitousek, P. M., J. D. Aber, R. W. Howarth, G. E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D. W. Schindler, W. H.

Schlesinger and D. G. Tilman. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecological Applications 7:737-750.

Supplemental Readings

Ecosystem Ecology

Ayensu, E., D. van R. Claasen, M. Collins, A. Dearing, L. Fresco, M. Gadgil, H. Gitay, G. Glaser, C. Juma, J. Krebs, R. Lenton, J. Lubchenco, J. McNeeley, H. Mooney, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, M. Ramos, P. Raven, W. Reid, C. Samper, J. Sarukhán, P. Schei, J. Galizia Tundisi, R. Watson, Xu Guanhua and A. Zakri. 1999. International Ecosystem Assessment. Science 286:685-686.

Baines, S. B. and M. L. Pace. 1991. The production of dissolved organic matter by phytoplankton and its importance to bacteria: patterns across marine and freshwater systems. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36:1078-1090.

Carpenter, S. 1998. The need for large-scale experiments to assess and predict the response of ecosystems to perturbation. pp. 287-312. In: M. L. Pace and P. M. Groffman (eds.). Successes, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Carpenter, S. R. and J. F. Kitchell. 1993. The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge University Press.

Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, S. Naeem, K. Limburg, J. Paruelo, R. V. O’Neill et al. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.

Cole, J. J., S. Findlay and M. L. Pace. 1988. Bacterial production in fresh and saltwater ecosystems: a cross-system overview. Marine Ecology Progress Series 43:1-10.

Cole, J. J., M. L. Pace, S. R. Carpenter and J. F. Kitchell. 2000. Persistence of net heterotrophy in lakes during nutrient addition and food web manipulations. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(8):1718-1730.

Evans, F. C. 1956. Ecosystem as a basic unit in ecology. Science 123:1127-1128.

Golley, F. B. 1993. A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.

Hagen, J. B. 1992. An Entangled Bank. The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology. Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, NJ.

Hrbácek, J., M. Dvoráková, M. Korinek and L. Procházková. 1961. Demonstration of the effect of the fish stock on the species composition of zooplankton and the intensity of metabolism of the whole plankton association. Verh. der Internat. Verein. für Theor. Ang. Limnol. 14:192-195.

Jones, C. G. and J. H. Lawton (eds.). 1995. Linking Species and Ecosystems. Chapman & Hall, Inc. New York. 387 pp.

Juday, C. 1940. The annual energy budget of an inland lake. Ecology 21:438-450.

Kerkhoff, A. J. and B. J. Enquist. 2007. The implications of scaling approaches for understanding resilience and reorganization in ecosystems. BioScience 57(6):489-499.

Lewis, W. M., S. K. Hamilton, M. A. Rodriguez, J. F. Saunders and M. A. Lasi. 2001. Foodweb analysis of the Orinoco floodplain based on production estimates and stable isotope data. Journal of the North American Benthylogical Society 20:241-254.

Likens, G. E. 1992. The Ecosystem Approach: Its Use and Abuse. Excellence in Ecology, Vol. 3. Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany. 167 pp.

Likens, G. E. 2001. Ecosystems: Energetics and Biogeochemistry. pp. 53-88. In: W. J. Kress and G. Barrett (eds.). A New Century of Biology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

Lindeman, R. L. 1942. The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399-418.

Odum, H. T. 1957. Trophic structure and productivity of Silver Springs, Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 27:55-112.

Odum, E. P. 1959. Fundamentals of Ecology, 2nd edition, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 546 pp.

Odum, E. P. 1962. Relationships between structure and function of the ecosystem. Japanese Journal of Ecology 12(3):108-118.

Odum, E. P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270.

O’Neill, R. V. 2001. Is it time to ury the ecosystem concept? (with full military honors, of course!). Ecology 82(12):3275-3284.

Pace, M. L. and P. M. Groffman (eds.). 1998. Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 499 pp.

Pace, M. L., J. J. Cole, S. R. Carpenter, J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, M. van de Bogert, D. L.

Bade, E. S. Kritzberg and D. Bastviken. 2004. Whole lake carbon-13 additions reveal terrestrial support of aquatic food webs. Nature 427:240-243.

Paine, R. T. 1980. Food webs: linkage, interaction strength, and community infrastructure. J. Animal Ecol. 49:667-685.

Post, D. M., M. L. Pace and N. G. Hairston, Jr. 2000. Ecosystem size determines food-chain length in lakes. Nature 45:1047-1049.

Reiners, W. A. 1986. Complementary models for ecosystems. Amer. Natur. 127:59-73.

Strayer, D. L. 1988. On the limits to secondary production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33:1217-1220.

Tansley, A. G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284-307.

Turner, B. L., II, W. C. Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Matthews and W. B. Meyer (eds.). 1990. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge and New York.

Vitousek, P. M., P. R. Ehrlich, A. H. Erhlich and P. A. Matson. 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis. BioScience 36:368-373.

Webb, C. T. 2007. What is the role of ecology in understanding Ecosystem Resilience? BioScience 57(6):470-471.


Aber, J. D., K. J. Nadelhoffer, P. Steudler and J. M. Melillo. 1989. Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems. BioScience 39:378-386.

Bernhardt, E. S. and G. E. Likens. 2002. Dissolved organic carbon enrichment alters nitrogen dynamics in a forest stream. Ecology 83:1689-1700.

Bormann, F. H., G. E. Likens and J. M. Melillo. 1977. Nitrogen budget for an aggrading northern hardwood forest ecosystem. Science 196:981-983.

Caraco, N., J. J. Cole and G. E. Likens. 1989. Evidence for sulphate-controlled phosphorus release from sediments of aquatic systems. Nature 341:316-318.

Carpenter, S. R., N. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-568.

Cole, J. J., N. Caraco, G. W. Kling and T. W. Kratz. 1994. Carbon dioxide supersaturation in the surface waters of lake. Science 265:1568-1570.

Elser, J. J., E. R. Marzolf and C. R. Goldman. 1990. Phosphorous and nitrogen limitation of phytoplankton growth in the freshwaters of North America: a review and critique of experimental enrichments. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:1468-1477.

Elser, J. J. et al. 2000a. Nutritional constraints in terrestrial and freshwater food webs. Nature 408:578-580.

Elser, J. J. et al. 2000b. Biological stoichiometry from genes to ecosystems. Ecology Letters 3:540-550.

Finzi, A. C., E. H. DeLucia, J. G. Hamilton, D. D. Richter and W. H. Schlesinger. 2002. The nitrogen budget of a pine forest under free air CO2 enrichment. Oecologia 132:567-578.

Galloway, J. N., H. Levy II and P. S. Kasibhatla. 1994. Year 2020: consequences of population growth and development on the deposition of oxidized nitrogen. Ambio 23:120-123.

Hasler, A. D. and W. G. Einsele. 1948. Fertilization for increasing productivity of natural inland waters. Trans. North Amer. Wildlife Conf. 13:527-555.

Hutchinson, G. E. 1973. Eutrophication: The scientific background of a contemporary practical problem. Amer. Sci. 61:269-279.

Keeling, R. F., N. P. Raymond, M. L. Bender and P. P. Tans. 1993. What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carbon cycle. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7:37-67.

Kling, G. W., W. C. Evans, G. Tanyileke, M. Kusakabe, T. Ohba, Y. Yoshida and J. V. Hell. 2005. Degassing Lakes Nyos and Monoun: defusing certain disaster. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 102: 14185-14190.

Likens, G. E. 1972. Eutrophication and aquatic ecosystems. pp. 3-13. In: G. E. Likens (ed.). Nutrients and Eutrophication. Proc. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Special Symposia, Vol. 1. Lawrence, Kansas.

Likens, G. E. 2001. Ecosystems: Energetics and Biogeochemistry. pp. 53-88. In: W. J. Kress and G. Barrett (eds.). A New Century of Biology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

Likens, G. E. 2004. Some perspectives on long-term biogeochemical research from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study. Ecology 85(9):2355-2362.

Likens, G. E. and F. H. Bormann. 1995. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Second Edition, Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 159 pp.

Pace, M. L., J. J. Cole, S. R. Carpenter, J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, M. van de Bogert, D. L. Bade, E. S. Kritzberg and D. Bastviken. 2004. Whole lake carbon-13 additions reveal terrestrial support of aquatic food webs. Nature 427:240-243.

Peterson, B. J., R. W. Howarth and R. H. Garritt. 1985. Multiple stable isotopes used to trace the flow of organic matter in estuarine food webs. Science 227:1361-1363.

Redfield, A. C. 1958. The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. Amer. Sci. 46:206-226.

Reich, P. B., D. F. Grigal, J. D. Aber and S. T. Gower. 1997. Nitrogen mineralization and productivity in 50 hardwood and conifer stands on diverse soils. Ecology 78:335-347.

Rhyther, J. H. and W. M. Dunstan. 1971. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and eutrophication in coastal marine environments. Science 171:1008-1013.

Schindler, D. E., S. R. Carpenter, J. J. Cole, J. F. Kitchell and M. L. Pace. 1997. Influence of food web structure on carbon exchange between lakes and the atmosphere. Science 277:248-251.

Schindler, D. W. 1977. Evolution of phosphorus limitation in lakes. Science 195:260-262.

Schindler, D. W., K. H. Mills, D. F. Malley, D. L. Findlay, J. A. Shearer, I. J. Davies, M. A. Turner, G. A. Linsey and D. R. Cruikshank. 1985. Long-term ecosystem stress: The effects of years of experimental acidification on a small lake. Science 228:1395-1401.

Schlesinger, W. H. 1997. Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Changes, 2nd edition. Academic Press, New York.

Smith, V. H. 1998. Cultural eutrophication of inland, estuarine and coastal waters. pp. 7-49. In: M. L. Pace and P. M. Groffman (eds.). Success, Limitations and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Sterner, R. W. and J. J. Elser. 2002. Ecological stoichiometry: the biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere. Princeton University Press. 439 pp.

Vanni, M. J. 2002. Nutrient cycling by animals in freshwater ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33:341-370.

Vitousek, P. M. 2004. Nutrient Cycling and Limitation. Hawai’i as a Model System. Princeton Univ. Press. 223 pp.

Vitousek, P. M. and R. W. Howarth. 1991. Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea. How can it occur? Biogeochemistry 13:87-115.

Vollenweider, R. A. 1968. Scientific fundamentals of lake and stream eutrophication, with particular reference to phosphorus and nitrogen as eutrophication factors. Tech. Report DAS/DSI/68-27. OECD, Paris, France.