Biology of the Vertebrates Study Questions F2012

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Note: These study questions are not comprehensive. They are meant to supplement your lecture notes as you review them, and alert you to the ways in which you should be thinking about the material, and formulate questions to test yourself. Exams will NOT be limited to the material highlighted in these questions, or their formats, so your lecture notes and handouts should be your primary reference.

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Lecture 1 (28 August 2012)

1. What are the reasons for studying a particular group of organisms such as vertebrates?

2. List the basic functions of living organisms. Provide a vertebrate example for each.

3. What is a trade-off? Explain it in terms of one of the two examples (e.g. lizards and salamanders) discussed in lecture.

4. Why weren't the ancestors of lizards subject to the same constraint (trade-off)? How have some lizard relatives escaped from this constraint (e.g. Komodo dragon)?

5. Hydromantes salamanders have a high performance, ballistic tongue. What two trade-offs have allowed for this?

Lecture 2 (30 August 2012)

1. Organize the vertebrate groups (12) from the most to the least diverse (# of spp.).

2. What is a "monophyletic group"? Draw the vertebrate phylogeny and label all major monophyletic groups discussed in lecture.

3. What vertebrates (use common names) belong in the Lepidosauria? Synapsida? Actinopterygii?

5. What are the six major deuterostome groups named in lecture? Describe a representative from each group.

6. Define the term "sister group". What is the sister group of hemichordates? What is the sister group of vertebrates?

*Please refer to the Pdficon small.gifPhylogeny Tutorial and Pdficon small.gifTree Quiz for additional help with phylogenetic trees*

Lecture 3 (4 September 2012)

1. Which is the sister group of Amniota?

2. How do cephalochordates (amphioxus) bring oxygen to every cell on their bodies?

3. List three key traits (features) found in chordates. Why are Urochordates (sea squirts, tunicates) considered to be chordates when they do not possess any of these features as adults?

4. Describe the reproductive strategies of amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata), tunicates (subphylum Urochordata), and hagfishes (subphylum Vertebrata, Myxinoidea). Which of these lineages has the ability of reproduce clonally?

5. Describe the circulatory system of amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata), and tunicates (subphylum Urochordata). Which of these groups has a heart? An anterior enlargement of the nerve cord?

Lecture 4 (6 September 2012)

1. Name two traits of the feeding apparati that are shared by hagfishes and lampreys, but are different when compared to gnathostomes.

2. Describe the life history and reproductive behavior of the lamprey (Petromyzontoidea). In what ways does it differ from that of the hagfish (Myxinoidea)?

3. Both hagfish and lampreys are similar in overall body size and shape (e.g., elongate, and without paired appendages). What are some key morphological/anatomical features that can be used to differentiate between these two groups?

4. What is a "synapomorphy"? List the chordate traits (4). Which of these are considered synapomorphies?

5. Provide a brief description of the probable morphology of the ancestral chordate, given what is known about its living descendants.

6. List three vertebrate synapomorphies. List three gnathostomes synapomorphies. List two hagfish synapomorphies.

Lecture 5 (11 September 2012)

Lecture 6 (13 September 2012)

Lecture 7 (18 September 2012)

Lecture 8 (20 September 2012)

Lecture 9 (25 September 2012)

EXAM 1 (27 September 2012)

Lecture 10 (2 October 2012)

Lecture 11 (4 October 2012)

Lecture 12 (9 October 2012)

Lecture 13 (11 October 2012)

Lecture 14 (16 October 2012)

Lecture 15 (18 October 2012)

Lecture 16 (23 October 2012)

Lecture 17 (25 October 2012)

EXAM 2 (30 October 2012)

Lecture 18 (1 November 2012)

Lecture 19 (6 November 2012)

Lecture 20 (8 November 2012)

Lecture 21 (13 November 2012)

Lecture 22 (15 November 2012)

Lecture 23 (27 November 2012)

Lecture 24 (29 November 2012)

Lecture 25 (December 4, 2012)

Lecture 26 (December 6, 2012)

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