Biology of the Vertebrates Study Questions F2012

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Note: These study questions are not comprehensive. They are meant to supplement your lecture notes as you review them, and alert you to the ways in which you should be thinking about the material, and formulate questions to test yourself. Exams will NOT be limited to the material highlighted in these questions, or their formats, so your lecture notes and handouts should be your primary reference.

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Lecture 1 (28 August 2012)

1. What are the reasons for studying a particular group of organisms such as vertebrates?

2. List the basic functions of living organisms. Provide a vertebrate example for each.

3. What is a trade-off? Explain it in terms of one of the two examples (e.g. lizards and salamanders) discussed in lecture.

4. Why weren't the ancestors of lizards subject to the same constraint (trade-off)? How have some lizard relatives escaped from this constraint (e.g. Komodo dragon)?

5. Hydromantes salamanders have a high performance, ballistic tongue. What two trade-offs have allowed for this?

Lecture 2 (30 August 2012)

1. Organize the vertebrate groups (12) from the most to the least diverse (# of spp.).

2. What is a "monophyletic group"? Draw the vertebrate phylogeny and label all major monophyletic groups discussed in lecture.

3. What vertebrates (use common names) belong in the Lepidosauria? Synapsida? Actinopterygii?

5. What are the six major deuterostome groups named in lecture? Describe a representative from each group.

6. Define the term "sister group". What is the sister group of hemichordates? What is the sister group of vertebrates?

*Please refer to the Pdficon small.gifPhylogeny Tutorial and Pdficon small.gifTree Quiz for additional help with phylogenetic trees*

Lecture 3 (4 September 2012)

1. Which is the sister group of Amniota?

2. How do cephalochordates (amphioxus) bring oxygen to every cell on their bodies?

3. List three key traits (features) found in chordates. Why are Urochordates (sea squirts, tunicates) considered to be chordates when they do not possess any of these features as adults?

4. Describe the reproductive strategies of amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata), tunicates (subphylum Urochordata), and hagfishes (subphylum Vertebrata, Myxinoidea). Which of these lineages has the ability of reproduce clonally?

5. Describe the circulatory system of amphioxus (subphylum Cephalochordata), and tunicates (subphylum Urochordata). Which of these groups has a heart? An anterior enlargement of the nerve cord?

Lecture 4 (6 September 2012)

1. Name two traits of the feeding apparati that are shared by hagfishes and lampreys, but are different when compared to gnathostomes.

2. Describe the life history and reproductive behavior of the lamprey (Petromyzontoidea). In what ways does it differ from that of the hagfish (Myxinoidea)?

3. Both hagfish and lampreys are similar in overall body size and shape (e.g., elongate, and without paired appendages). What are some key morphological/anatomical features that can be used to differentiate between these two groups?

4. What is a "synapomorphy"? List the chordate traits (4). Which of these are considered synapomorphies?

5. Provide a brief description of the probable morphology of the ancestral chordate, given what is known about its living descendants.

6. List three vertebrate synapomorphies. List three gnathostomes synapomorphies. List two hagfish synapomorphies. List a lamprey synapomorphy.

7. Provide a brief description of the probable morphology of the ancestral vertebrate, given what is known about its living descendants.

Lecture 5 (11 September 2012)

1. Why are the "teeth" of hagfish (Myxinoidea) not homologous (i.e., evolutionarily related structures) to the teeth of other vertebrate lineages, like sharks, bony fishes, and mammals?

2. What key features place the Cambrian fossil Haikouella in the vertebrate lineage? Where would you place it on the vertebrate phylogeny?

3. What are two distinct traits seen in the Cambrian fossil Haikouichthyes (Myllokumingia) that are not seen in Haikouella?

4. What are "conodont fossils"? Why did it take so long to determine what they actually were (i.e., what organism they belonged to)? Where would you place conodont fossils on the vertebrate phylogeny?

5. Which are the three mineralized tissue layers that compose the external skeleton (dermal armor) of jawless armored fishes? What are the hypothesized functions of the external skeleton? List the three major dermal armor derivatives.

6. Describe the mineral composition of each of the three types of fish scales. Provide an example of a type of fish that possesses each of these scale types. What are the advantages of having scales as opposed to body armor?

Lecture 6 (13 September 2012)

1. Be able to answer the who, what, where, when, why, and how questions for vertebrate traits discussed in lecture. For example, the origin of jaws is seen in the ancestor to what lineages? In what environment did jaws evolve? In what geological time period did jaws evolve? What anatomical feature are jaws modified from? What is the ancestral function of jaws? What is the primary function of jaws in most extant gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) lineages?

2. In what groups do we see both paired pectoral and pelvic fins? What is the ancestral function of possessing paired fins? Briefly describe the two theories of fin evolution.

3. In what geological period do researchers think placoderms reached their highest diversity? When do chondrichthyians first show up in the fossil record?

4. Name the two major groups within Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) and give an example of an animal that belongs to each lineage. List some unique features for each group.

5. Which are the chondrichthyian characteristics? Out of those which are considered synapomorphies?

6. Why would it be advantageous to have a mineralized cartilaginous skeleton? What would be a disadvantage for possessing this type of skeleton?

7. Provide a brief description of reproduction in sharks. How can a female shark control parentage?

8. What is viviparity? In what vertebrate lineages do viviparous organisms occur?

Lecture 7 (18 September 2012)

1. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) have a large diversity of tooth shapes. Describe two different two shapes seen in sharks and rays. What are the functions of each of these different tooth shapes?

2. Briefly describe the jaw movement(s) in sharks.

3. Provide the who (which lineage), why (function), and how of the "Ampullae of Lorenzini"?

4. Why is the Ampullae of Lorenzini thought to be responsible for the unique head shapes in chondichthyians?

5. Name two differences between Stingrays and other Elasmobranchs.

6. Describe and name three advantages of the jaw protrusion mechanism.

Lecture 8 (20 September 2012)

Lecture 9 (25 September 2012)

EXAM 1 (27 September 2012)

Lecture 10 (2 October 2012)

Lecture 11 (4 October 2012)

Lecture 12 (9 October 2012)

Lecture 13 (11 October 2012)

Lecture 14 (16 October 2012)

Lecture 15 (18 October 2012)

Lecture 16 (23 October 2012)

Lecture 17 (25 October 2012)

EXAM 2 (30 October 2012)

Lecture 18 (1 November 2012)

Lecture 19 (6 November 2012)

Lecture 20 (8 November 2012)

Lecture 21 (13 November 2012)

Lecture 22 (15 November 2012)

Lecture 23 (27 November 2012)

Lecture 24 (29 November 2012)

Lecture 25 (December 4, 2012)

Lecture 26 (December 6, 2012)

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